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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: As part of the Southeast United States-based Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), and collinear with part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study, the University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar system was deployed to the University of Alabama from 19 June to 4 November 2013. With a collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer, a nearby Chemical Speciation Network (PM2.5) measurement station, and near daily ozonesonde releases for the August-September SEAC4RS campaign, the site allowed the regions first comprehensive diurnal monitoring of aerosol particle vertical structure. A 532nm lidar ratio of 55 sr provided good closure between aerosol backscatter and AERONET (aerosol optical thickness, AOT). A principle component analysis was performed to identify key modes of variability in aerosol backscatter. ''Fair weather'' days exhibited classic planetary boundary layer structure of a mixed layer accounting for approx. 50% of AOT and an entrainment zone providing another 25%. An additional 5-15% of variance is gained from the lower free troposphere from either convective detrainment or frequent intrusions of western United States biomass burning smoke. Generally, aerosol particles were contained below the 0 C level, a common level of stability in convective regimes. However, occasional strong injections of smoke to the upper troposphere were also observed, accounting for the remaining 10-15% variability in AOT. Examples of these common modes of variability in frontal and convective regimes are presented, demonstrating why AOT often has only a weak relationship to surface PM2.5 concentration.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN51500 , Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X ) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 122; 5 ; 2970-3004
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: SPIE Optical Science and Technology 49th Annual Meeting; Aug 02, 2004 - Aug 06, 2004; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry xperiment (FRAPP) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than 15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than 5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NF1676L-26921 , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (ISSN 1867-1381) (e-ISSN 1867-8548); 10; 10; 3865-3876
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, developed jointly by NASA and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH), measures free-tropospheric ozone profiles between 4-10 km. Located at 192 meters altitude in the Regional Atmospheric Profiling Laboratory for Discovery (RAPCD) on the UAH campus in Huntsville, AL, USA, this tropospheric ozone lidar operates under both daytime and nighttime conditions. Frequent coincident ozonesonde flights and theoretical calculations provide evidence to indicate the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 8% at 4km to 40%-60% at 10 kin with 750-m vertical resolution and 30-minute integration. With anticipated improvements to allow retrievals at both higher and lower altitudes, this ozone lidar, along with co-located aerosol and Doppler Wind Lidars, will provide a unique 18 dataset for investigations of PBL and free-tropospheric chemical and dynamic processes.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Multiple satellite and ground-based observations provide consistent evidence that the thickness of Earth's protective ozone layer has stopped declining since 1997, close to the time of peak stratospheric halogen loading. Regression analyses with Effective Equivalent Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC) in conjunction with further analyses using more sophisticated photochemical model calculations constrained by satellite data demonstrate that the cessation of ozone depletion between 18-25 km altitude is consistent with a leveling off of stratospheric abundances of chlorine and bromine, due to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. However, ozone increases in the lowest part of the stratosphere, from the tropopause to 18 km, account for about half of the improvement in total column ozone during the past 9 years at northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. The increase in ozone for altitudes below 18 km is most likely driven by changes in transport, rather than driven by declining chlorine and bromine. Even with this evidence that the Montreal Protocol and its amendments are having the desired, positive effect on ozone above 18 km, total column ozone is recovering faster than expected due to the apparent transport driven changes at lower altitudes. Accurate prediction of future levels of stratospheric ozone will require comprehensive understanding of the factors that drive temporal changes at various altitudes, and partitioning of the recent transport-driven increases between natural variability and changes in atmospheric structure perhaps related to anthropogenic climate change.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We have developed a new algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol and gases from SAGE It1 solar transmission measurements. This algorithm improves upon the NASA operational algorithm in several key aspects, including solving the problem non-linearly and incorporating a new methodology for separating the contribution of aerosols and gases. In order to extract aerosol information we have built a huge database of aerosol models for both stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, and polar stratospheric cloud particles. This set of models allows us to calculate a vast range of possible extinction spectra for aerosols. and from these, derive a set of eigenvectors which then provide the basis set used in our inversion algorithm. Our aerosol algorithm and retrievals are described in several articles (listed in References Section) published under this grant. In particular they allow us to analyze the spectral properties of aerosols and PSCs and ultimately derive their microphysical properties. We have found some considerable differences between our spectra and the ones derived from the SAGE III operational algorithm. These are interesting as they provide an independent check on the validity of published aerosol data and, in particular, on their associated uncertainties. In order to understand these differences, we are assembling independent aerosol data from other sources with which to make comparisons. We have carried out extensive comparisons of our ozone retrievals with both SAGE III and independent lidar, ozonesonde, and satellite measurements (Polyakov et al., 2004). These show very good agreement throughout the stratosphere and help to quantify differences which can be attributed to natural variation in ozone versus that produced by algorithmic differences. In the mid - upper stratosphere, agreement with independent data was generally within 5 - 20%. but in the lower stratosphere the differences were considerably larger. We believe that a large proportion of this discrepancy in the lower stratosphere is attributable to natural variation, and is also seen in comparisons between lidar and ozonesonde measurements. NO2 profiles obtained with our algorithm were compared to those obtained through the SAGE III operational algorithm and exhibited differences of 20 - 40%. Our retrieved profiles agree with the HALOE NO2 measurements significantly better than those of the operational retrieval. In other work (described below), we are extending our aerosol retrievals into the infrared regime and plan to perform retrievals from combined uv-visible-infrared spectra. This work will allow us to use the spectra to derive the size and composition of aerosols, and we plan to employ our algorithms in the analysis of PSC spectra. We are presently also developing a limb-scattering algorithm to retrieve aerosol data from limb measurements of solar scattered radiation.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8942 , Journal of Applied Optics; 52; 15; 3557-3566
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone-profile (PROFOZ) product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI Row anomaly (RA) on the retrieval by dividing the data set into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004-2008) and post-RA (2009-2014). The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and mid-latitudes and for pressure less than equivalent to 50 hPa in the high latitudes. It demonstrates clear improvement over the a priori down to the lower troposphere in the tropics and down to an average of approximately 550 (300) hPa at middle (high latitudes). In the tropics and mid-latitudes, the profile mean biases (MBs) are less than 6%, and the standard deviations (SDs) range from 5-10% for pressure less than equivalent to 50 hPa to less than 18% (27%) in the tropics (mid-latitudes) for pressure greater than equivalent to 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC) are within 2% with SDs of less than 5% and the MBs of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) are within 6% with SDs of 15%. In the high latitudes, the profile MBs are within 10% with SDs of 5-15% for pressure less than equivalent to 50 hPa, but increase to 30% with SDs as great as 40% for pressure greater than equivalent to 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3% with SDs as great as 6% and the TOC SDs increase up to 30%. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar-zenith angles (SZA) due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the mid-latitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure greater than equivalent to 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs and SDs at extreme off-nadir positions. In the tropics and mid-latitudes, the post-RA comparison is considerably worse with larger SDs reaching 2% in the stratosphere and 8% in the troposphere and up to 6% in TOC. There are systematic differences that vary with latitude compared to the pre-RA comparison. The retrieval comparison demonstrates good long-term stability during the pre-RA period, but exhibits a statistically significant trend of 0.14-0.7%/year for pressure less than equivalent to 80 hPa, 0.7 DU/year in SOC and -0.33 DU/year in TOC during the post-RA period. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMIs radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability and reduce the latitude/season/SZA and cross-track dependence of retrieval quality.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN47007 , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (ISSN 1867-1381) (e-ISSN 1867-8548); 10; 7; 2455-2475
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA initiated an interagency ozone lidar observation network under the name TOLNet to promote cooperative multiple-station ozone-lidar observations to provide highly time-resolved (few minutes) tropospheric-ozone vertical profiles useful for air-quality studies, model evaluation, and satellite validation.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN26359 , GEO-CAPE 2015 Community Workshop; Aug 31, 2015 - Sep 02, 2015; Research Triangle Park, NC; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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