Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The bioavailabilities of a conventional and two slow release 20 mg isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) formulations were compared after oral administration in a three way cross-over study in 8 male volunteers. In a further group of 6 male volunteers the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ISDN were investigated after intravenous infusion of a median dose of 14.1 mg for 2.5 h. A new analytical procedure was developed for the determination of isosorbide-5-mononitrate-2-glucuronide (IS-5-MN-2-Glu) and of isosorbide (IS). Kinetic data analysis on a molar basis was performed by the program package KINPAK providing model independent parameters. The median elimination half-lives of ISDN, IS-5-MN, IS-2-MN and IS-5-MN-2-Glu were 0.7, 5.1, 3.2 and 2.5 h, respectively. The systemic clearance of ISDN was 3.7 l/min and the distribution volume 2521 (3.1 l/kg). Apart from IS-5-MN-2-Glu, with a renal clearance of 5.9 l/min which suggested substantial glucuronidation in the kidney, the renal clearances of ISDN, IS-5-MN, IS-2-MN and the corresponding amounts excreted were negligible. 27.8% of the administered ISDN was excreted as IS-5-MN-2-Glu (8.7%) and IS (19.1%). Calculations based on the two mononitrate metabolites formed from ISDN showed an incomplete recovery of 84.1%, leading to the assumption that a simultaneous denitration to IS must have occurred. The rate of denitration at each nitro group in ISDN was almost twice as high as for the same position in the corresponding mononitrate. The bioavailability of the conventional ISDN formulation was 19%, although complete absorption was indicated by comparison of the percentages of mononitrate metabolites formed after the different routes of administration. On the same basis the absorption of the two sustained release formulations was found to be poor.
Type of Medium: