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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  DNA sequences digested by HaeIII and reconstructed by in situ nick translation employing digoxigenin-labelled nucleotides are usually revealed either by horseradish peroxidase or FITC fluorescence. To obtain a significant improvement in terms of resolution, sensitivity and specificity, colloidal gold has been used instead of FITC (as the reporter molecule) to reveal the labelled DNA. Colloidal gold and propidium iodide were visualised by employing the reflectance mode and the 488-nm laser line of a confocal laser scanning microscope. In chromosomes, the fluorescent reaction pattern showed diffuse areas of labelling in which it was impossible to identify any specific kind of banding along the arms. In some chromosomes and, in particular, 1 and 9, a C-negative banding due to the negativity of the centromeric areas was seen. A more accurate localisation on chromosomes, including telomeric regions, often organised in spot pairs that resembled an R-like banding, was detected using 1-nm colloidal gold. A fine labelling was also demonstrated in nuclei, especially at their peripheral heterochromatin. The non-fading properties of colloidal gold combined with visualisation by reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the possibility of obtaining a higher spatial resolution than when using conventional fluorophores or higher laser wavelength. This improved way to study the localization of HaeIII digestion sites in single chromosomes and in interphase nuclei made the reaction a valuable tool for the detection of antigens or of specific DNA sequences in biological preparations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The nuclear scaffold or matrix is a mainly proteinaceous structure thought to act as a nucleoskeleton determining the higher order organization of eukaryotic chromatin. These structures are prepared from isolated nuclei by a series of extraction steps involving the use of ionic detergents or high salt, and restriction enzymes or non-specific nucleases to remove chromatin and other loosely bound components. Since these treatments are harsh and unphysiological, the question remains open as to whether or not these structures, isolated in vitro, correspond to a nucleoskeleton existing in vivo. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the majority of nuclear matrix proteins are involved in RNA metabolism. In this study we have employed a morphological approach involving the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence techniques to analyze whether two widely employed methods to prepare the nuclear scaffold or matrix can maintain the spatial distribution of two polypeptides involved in RNA metabolism, i.e., a 105-kDa component of spliceosomes and a ribonucleoprotein antigen. We demonstrate that the localization of these polypeptides changes, in some cases dramatically, in the final nucleoskeletal structures when compared with intact cells. Only when isolated nuclei were stabilized in vitro with the cross-linking agent sodium tetrathionate (NaTT) prior to extraction with 2 M NaCl and DNase I digestion, were the immunofluorescent patterns displayed by the nuclear matrix indistinguishable from those detected in intact cells. These results emphasize the usefulness of NaTT in studying putative nucleoskeletal structures, but also show that the methods currently employed to prepare the nuclear scaffold or matrix may create in vitro artifacts.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, which differentiates into sympathetic neurons under nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment, contains at least three phosphoinositidase C (PIC) isozymes, PIC β, PIC γ, PIC δ. These isozymes have been previously shown to display a different subcellular localization. To determine whether or not NGF induces changes in the presence and/or distribution of PIC isozymes during PC12 neural differentiation, studies were carried out by means of in situ immunocytochemistry. After NGF administration the proliferative activity was progressively reduced to very low levels, as measured by bromodeoxyUridine incorporation, and a neuron-like morphology was displayed by almost all cells. In unstimulated PC12 cells, PIC β was detected in the nucleus whereas PIC δ was only cytoplasmic; PIC γ was found in both cell compartments. In cells treated with NGF for 3 days, neural processes extended to twice the diameter of the cell body; the γ isoform was concentrated near the nucleus, while the immunoreactivity of the β form remained constant and the δ form was increased. After 10 days of treatment with NGF, PIC β was hardly detectable and PIC γ immunostaining was considerably decreased. On the contrary, PIC δ progressively increased and, after 14 days of NGF exposure, fully differentiated cells displayed an intense labelling of cell body and neurites. In the same cells, PIC β and PIC γ were almost negative. These results suggest that NGF dependent neural differentiation is related to the selective down regulation of PIC β and γ and the increase of PIC δ isozyme associated with the decrease of cell proliferation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The nuclear matrix, a proteinaceous entity thought to be a scaffolding structure that determines the higher order organization of eukaryotic chromatin, is usually prepared from intact nuclei by a series of extraction steps. In most cell types investigated, the nuclear matrix does not spontaneously resist these extractions, but must rather be stabilized before the application of extracting agents such as high salt solutions or lithium diiodosalicylate. We have examined the effect of two widely used stabilization procedures on the localization of nuclear matrix proteins. Four individual polypeptides were studied, all of which are scaffold or matrix-associated region (S/MAR)-binding proteins: SATB1, SAF-A/hnRNP-U, NuMA , and topoisomerase II α. Nuclei were isolated from K562 human erythroleukemia cells in a buffer containing spermine, spermidine, KCl and EDTA, and the nuclear matrix or scaffold was obtained by extraction with lithium diiodosalicylate after stabilization by heat treatment (37° or 42°C) or incubation with Cu2+ ions. When the localization of individual proteins was determined by immunofluorescent staining and confocal scanning laser microscopy, markedly different consequences of the two stabilization strategies became evident, ranging from a total maintenance of the localization (NuMA and topoisomerase II α) to a marked redistribution (SATB1 and SAF-A/hnRNP-U). Our results seem to indicate that a reevaluation of stabilization protocols employed for the preparation of the nuclear matrix is desirable, especially by performing morphological controls.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] An analysis of phosphoinositidase C (PIC) activities in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Swiss 3T3 cells using [3H]PtdInsP and [3H]PtdInsP2 as substrates is shown in Fig. 1. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic activities require calcium because the addition of EGTA completely abolishes breakdown. ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: natural killer ; T lymphocytes ; flow cytometry ; side scatter ; binding ; conjugates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A flow cytometric methodology was set up to assess the binding capability of peripheral blood NK and T cells to the K562 tumor cell line. Differential side scatter characteristics between effectors and targets were used to analyze conjugated and unconjugated cells. The previous labeling of NK and T cells with anti-Leu 11c and anti-Leu 4 monoclonal antibodies, allowed the distinction between unconjugated non-fluorescent and conjugated fluorescent targets and the percentual evaluation of bound anti-Leu 11c+ and anti-Leu 4+ cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Isolated nuclei and nuclear matrices, prepared from mouse erythroleukaemia cells, were reacted with the sulphhydryl-specific dye 6-iodoacetamidofluorescein. To determine whether in vitro formation of disulphide bonds might play a role in the nuclear matrix stabilization triggered by exposure of isolated nuclei to the physiological temperature of 37°C, a variety of techniques were employed to assess the state of cysteinyl residues after such an incubation. Both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy quantitative analysis did not reveal major differences in the fluorescence intensity of nuclei incubated at 37°C in comparison with those maintained at 0°C. Confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that 6-iodoacetamidofluorescein labelled a fibrogranular network in isolated nuclei. The fluorescent pattern of the network was not affected by a 37°C exposure of nuclei. However, such a network was not detectable in isolated nuclear matrices, thus suggesting a possible protein re-arrangement during matrix preparation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorescent-labelled nuclear proteins showed no difference between heat-exposed and control samples. We conclude that oxidation of cysteinyl residues is not a major factor leading to the stabilization of nuclei incubated at 37°C.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear matrix ; DNA replication ; α-polymerase ; confocal microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the association of DNA polymerase and DNA primase activity with the nuclear matrix in HeLa S3 cells diluted with fresh medium after having been cultured without any medium change for 7 days. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that just before dilution about 85% of the cells were in the G1 phase of the cycle, whereas 8% were in the S phase. After dilution with fresh medium, 18-22 h were required for the cell population to attain a stable distribution with respect to the cell cycle. At that time, about 38% of the cells were in the S phase. DNA polymerase and DNA primase activity associated with the nuclear matrix prepared from cells just before dilution represented about 10% of nuclear activity. As judged by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and flow cytometric analysis, an increase in the number of S-phase cells was evident at least 6 h after dilution. However, as early as 2 h after dilution into fresh medium, a striking prereplicative increase of the two activitites was seen in the nuclear matrix fraction but not in cytosol or isolated nuclei. Both DNA polymerase and primase activities bound to the matrix were about 60% of nuclear activity. Overall, the nuclear matrix was the cell fraction where the highest induction (about 10-fold) of both enzymatic activities was seen at 30 h after dilution, whereas in cytosol and isolated nuclei the increase was about two- and fourfold, respectively. Typical immunofluorescent patterns given by an antibody to 5-bromodeoxyuridine were seen after dilution. These findings, which are at variance with our own previous results obtained with cell cultures synchronized by either a double thymidine block or aphidicolin exposure, strengthen the contention that DNA replication is associated with an underlying nuclear structure and demonstrate the artifacts that may be generated by procedures commonly used to synchronize cell cultures. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:11-20, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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