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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Stock assessment of Urmia Lake Artemia between 2000-2001 revealed intense decreasing cysts and biomass compared the previous years. Reducing annual rain falling from 32 to 18 cm in west Azarbayjan province lowered fresh water entrance from 4 billion m3 to 1.8 billion m3 to the lake as in 2001 the water volume reached to 6 billion m3 . Decreasing more than 2 billion m3 water volume of the lake per year with increasing the evaporation rate and existence of 5 billion tons salt inside the lake increased water salinity from 17% (1999) to 23.3% (2001) with max- min range of 250-258 ppt without any differences between the seasons. Mean transparency measured with Sechi disk was 138 cm (maximum 215 in Autumn and minimum 51 cm in Spring). Annual mean of water temperature 15 with fluctuation of 6 in winter to 22.13 in Autumn. this study, Artemia (different life stages) and phytoplankton were sampled by planktonic net from 12 suit stations which were selected from 36 sites used in previous Artemia stock assessment project done by Gent University, 1995. Phytoplankton sample identified and counted using identifying key and microscopic study. Results showed that in winter, the number of cysts per cubic meter 756 (minimum) and 2015 (maximum) in Autumn, with annual mean of 1000.m-3. Minimum 0.7 g.m-3 biomass wet weight (without cysts) were obtain in winter while the maximum (9.22 g.m-3) was in spring. The numbers of different nauplii stages per cubic meter with range of 0.03 in winter to 9.22 in spring( mean of 2.46) and juvenile stage per cubic meter were between 0.05 in winter to 1.16 in spring( mean= 0.66). It's showed higher percentage of larval stages in spring toward to higher juvenile and adults stages in summer to mid-autumn. Only Dunaliella and Nitzschia were identified but Dunaliella was dominated ( 95% of total identified phytoplankton with higher abundance, 31000 cells.L-1 in spring season(especially in May and June). Total biomass concluding cysts in studied year was 2700 tons( 30 tons cysts and 2670 tons other biomass which with 10% harvestable biomass, 3 tons cysts and 267 tons other biomass could be harvested without any diverse effects on Artemia stock. Cysts and biomass were found more in central to southern part of the lake. The best season for cysts harvesting were Autumn follow by Spring and for biomass harvest were Summer follow by Autumn.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-01
    Description: Post larvae of wild and cultured spawners of the Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus, Milne Edwards, 1837) were reared to market size, in commercial ponds of shrimp farming site of Helleh, in Bushehr Province, during a six months period. Environmental factors, management process and the diet used to feed shrimps were almost similar for both treatments. Averages of the weight, length, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and survival rate were measured and compared between the two treatments at harvesting time. Results indicated that, the post larvae of wild spawners had better growth, higher survival rate, and lower food conversion ratio. Weight gain of abdominal portion of the body, was higher in wild post larvae (P〈0.01), which was in contrast to cephalothorax weight (P〈0.01). Length-weight relationship measurements illustrated that, cultured post larvae obtained from wild spawners had similar size and were more acceptable for the market. Broodstock background could be the main reason for given differences, in which, those captured from the sea, had better condition due to receiving appropriate food with higher genetic diversity. To produce high quality post larvae for the expanding shrimp farming industry as an economic activity in the country, it is suggested that broodstocks to be obtained either from the sea as sub-adults or matured spawners, or to be provide from culturing shrimps, raised in conditions closest to the nature (i.e., ambient factors, prepared diets) and also with appropriate genetic diversity.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Estimation of Artemia resources on Uromieh Lake during (years2002-2003) showed huge reduction of Artemia cysts and biomass stocks than the previous years. Reduction of average annual precipitation in west Azerbaijan province during last 6 years than previous years from 32centimeter to 21centimeter has reduced the annual entered waters from the lakes basin rivers into the lake from(3.5-4.0)billion cubic meters to(1.8)billion cubic meters. During this period the entered fresh water in to the lake has been reduced, however the evaporation rate from 5750 square kilometer of Lake Surface has been continued at 3to4billion cubic meters per year. In spite of the fact that there are more than 5 billion tons salts on Uromieh Lake and that about 2 billion cubic meters of lake water is decreased annually due to negative balance between entered water and evaporation rate from Lake Surface, the water salinity on the lake has increased From 220 g/l in 1999 up to high saturated level atthe present. Increasing salinity on lake water up to high saturated level has caused to salt precipitate on lakes bottom and the Ionic exchange between lake water and beds natural precipitates that necessary to provide needed ions to photosynthesis was interrupted, so that the quality and quantity of primary productions on the lake has decreased and the lake has change to oligotrophic condition and in some seasons the turbidity of the lake has increased up to 5 meters. Above mentioned integrated factors have reduced Artemia stocks on lake during a few last years and this has resulted in stopping the cysts and biomass harvesting.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: At the present study, the water quality parameters monthly, environmental pollutants (pesticides, heavy metals and surfactants) seasonally, macrobenthos and bacteria (monthly) were done 2009 t0 2010 that located in Mangol Dam with longitude and latitude 52° 22' 49" N and 43° 15' 43" E, respectively. All water samples were collected from under-groundwater, surface water and wastewater in 12 stations and the results are as follow: The mean concentrations of DO, BOD_5, COD, HCO^3-, CO_3^2-, TA, Ca^2+, Mg^2+, TH, TSS, TDS, Cl^-, PO4^3-, NH^4+, NO^2- and NO^3- were determined about 11.86±0.49, 5.95±0.11, 4.96±0.59, 28.1±6.1, 14.34±1.64, 36.30±2.33, 64.66±2.34, 28.84±1.52, 271.62±8.41, 0.37±0.03, 0.45±0.02, 28.02±1.96, 0.06±0.01, 0.010±0.001, 0.01±0.001 and 0.96±0.03 mg/l, respectively and also temperature, pH and EC were 12.7±0.61°C, 8.00±0.02 unit, 0.57±0.02 ms/cm in all samples. The surface water quality of Haraz River and its tributaries were suitable for usual applications such as aquatic matters, but based on BOD_5 need to more attention for human usages. The water quality index (WQI) of surface water was classified in group II at all stations that shows serious water quality changes due to domestic and agriculture sewage. The groundwater was affected by different matters that caused change of water quality parameters. The wastewater was classified from good to moderate based on BOD5. The quality of wastewater was declined at down-stream with decreasing DO and pH and increasing BOD5 pollutants. The mean concentrations of aldrin and endrin were about 0.66 ± 0.59 and 0.71 ± 1.07 µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentration of organochlorin pesticides (OCPs) were detected in fall, winter and spring for endosulfan sulfate, γ-BHC, heptachlor, endrin aldehyde compounds about 2.85, 0.34, 0.14 and 0.14µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal percentage range of OCPs in fall, winter and spring for endosulfan sulfate, DDD and β-BHC were 42, 25 and 25 %, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations during fall, winter and spring were detected in Sorkhroud and Polechelave stations for only Fe about 1.48, 3.3 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. Also for Hg in spring was determined about 17.2 mg/l. The mean concentration of Zn, Fe and Hg in water sampled were 0.23 ± 1.01 and 1.21 ± 2.00 µg/l, respectively and 4.65± 6.38 mg/l. The maximum concentration of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in summer was 971µg/l. The mean concentration of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer was 418.62 ± 52.16 µg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage ranges of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer in all stations of sampling were 76, 76, 100 and 100 %, respectively. Tottaly 15 families of macrobenthos were identified in Haraz River. The maximum mean of abundance and biomass in Sorkhroud and Nour-roud stations were 1177±256 ind/m^2 and 3609±935mg/m^2, respectively. During Seasons, the maximum mean abundance and biomass were detected in fall and winter with 1185±444 ind/m^2 and 3891±849 mg/m^2, respectively. Water quality were classified by Hilsenhoff Biotic Index such as Sorkhrood station as "Very Poor", Isar town station as "Fairly Poor" and Karesang and Nor-roud stations as "good" qualification. The maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in surface water were observed in Sorkhrood about 4.9 and 2.3CFU/100ml, respectively. The maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in groundwater were observed in Halomsar and Absak stations about 4 and 1.7CFU/100ml, respectively. Maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in wastewater were observed in Nor-roud station about 3.1 and 1.6CFU/100ml, respectively. The Ovary of nematode in wastewater were observed in Nor-roud and Isar Town stations about 30 through 124, respectively.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: In this research, growth rate, blood parameters and proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultured in brackish and freshwater were evaluated. Two treatments (brackish and freshwater) in 3 replications were investigated. Six 1.5 m³ fiberglass tanks were used for this experiment, containing 180 rainbow trout specimens with average weight of 47.2±0.1g. Feeding rate in treatments was about 3% of body weight based on water temperature and fish biomass. Total length and weight of fish were measured in 15 days intervals. After 135 days of culture period, some fish samples were transferred to the Lab. Blood were directly collected from the heart. Muscle composition was analyzed for proximate composition. The results showed that the body weight of samples in brackish water was increased significantly after 45 days of culture period. Blood factors including WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, lymphocyte, thrombocyte and concentration of K+ ions in fish cultured in brackish water showed a significant increase (P〈0.05). Muscle composition analysis showed a significant increasing (p〈0.05) in fat and dry matter in freshwater treatment, while moisture was significantly higher in brackish water (P〈0.01).
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: At the present study, the environmental pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), heavy metals (during three seasons) and surfactants (during four seasons) were done 2009 to 2010 that located in Mangol Dam with longitude and latitude 52° 22' 49" N and 43° 15' 43" E, respectively. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal pollutants matters in water samples of under-groundwater and surface water in 12 stations and the results are as follow: The maximum residues fluctuations of OCPs were determined in between all water samples such as aldrin and endrin about 1.51 and 2.85 µg/l, respectively. The mean concentration of aldrin and endrin about 0.66 ± 0.59 and 0.71 ± 1.07 µg/l, respectively were determined. The maximum seasonal concentration of OCPs were detected in fall, winter and spring for such as endosulfan sulfate, γ-BHC, heptachlor, endrin aldehyde compounds about 2.85, 0.34, 0.14 and 0.14µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal percentage range of OCPs were detected in fall, winter and spring in water samples such as endosulfan sulfate, DDD and β-BHC were 42, 25 and 25 %, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations of Zn and Fe elements were detected in spring about 1.12 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. Also for Hg in spring was determined about 17.2 mg/l. The mean concentration of Zn, Fe and Hg in water sampled were 0.23±1.01 and 1.21±2.00 µg/l, respectively and 4.65±6.38 mg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage range of heavy metals were detected in fall, winter and spring in water samples such as Ni, Zn and Fe were 66, 83 and72%, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations of heavy metal were detected in Sorkhroud and Polechelave stations during fall, winter and spring for only Fe about 1.48, 3.3 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. The maximum concentration of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in last month of summer was 971µg/l. The mean concentration of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer was 418.62±52.16 µg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage range of surfactant uring fall, winter, spring and summer in all stations of sampling were 76, 76, 100 and 100 %, respectively.
    Keywords: Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Due to various Physic and chemical factors of rivers leading to the sea, the situation seems different topography and throughput rate initial productions in the different seasons and due to various circumstances physical and chemical rivers leading to the sea, seabed topography in different situation appears to be of primary production in the eastern and western between the Caspian Sea in the season, may be altered.Identifying species and determining the distribution and biomass of the changes and how they are affected by environmental changes and we are environmentally conscious. We also compare the current situation with previous studies, we find that the number and types of plankton biomass have been what it is. During 1392 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, in a study of 8 transects of 40 stations. In each transect from Astara to the Turkmen. 5 stations at depths of 5. 10 and 20 m were selected for sampling. The total number of 182 species from seven branches Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Xantophyta and Chrysophyta phytoplankton were identified. Including 81 species of Bacillariophyta, 33 Cyanophyta, 25 Pyrrophyta, 31Chlorophyta , 9 Euglenophyta, 1 Xantophyta and Chrysophyta had 1 specie. Most of Bacillariophyta (61 species) was in Autumn and then in winter (48 species). Dominant species of Bacillariophyta were Pseudonitzschia seriata, Rhizosolenia fragilissima, Stephanodiscos sp. , Melosira varians, Nitzschia acicularis and Cyclotella menenghiniana Pyrrophyta was greatest diversity of branches in summer, autumn and winter (19 species), which includes Exuviaella cordata, Exuviaella marina, Prorocentrum praximum and Prorocentrum scutllum. In the autumn density of Cyanophyta was 285/7(± 137/1) cubic meters × 106 and biomass was 95( ± 54) mg per cubic meter) and 18 species were observed. The dominant species in this category were Oscillatoria sp., Nodularia spumigena and Oscillatoria agardhii. Most species of Chlorophyta branche in autumn and winter and summer median region with the highest density at the density of 26/2% and most of it is Binuclearia lauterbornii. Identified as the branches Euglenophyta were Trachelomonas, Euglena and Phacus that were observed in all seasons. In winter, the highest mean biomass was 9( ± 0/818) mg per cubic meter and the highest density of in summer was 0/5 ( ± 0/5) in cubic meters × 106. In winter the depth of 10 meters and surface of Babolsar, Amir Abad and Anzali, a kind of Chrysophyta and in surface of Tonekabon and Anzali a species of Xantophyta were observed that had negligible density and biomass. Studies have shown that density and biomass of Bacillariophyta were 228 (± 471) per cubic meter × 106) and 6157 ± ( 290) mg per cubic meter) respectivity and Pyrrophyta were 28/17( ± 27/14) cubic meter × 106in cubic meters) and 3349 ( ± 336) mg per cubic meter) and Cyanophyta 120/40 (± 123/87) per cubic meter × 106 per cubic meter), biomass (55 ± 57mg per cubic meter) were the branches of the dominant phytoplankton. Abundance and biomass in different seasons have been significant differences (p 〈0.05).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-06
    Description: This study was conducted to codify the guideline and indexes of optimal management in warm-water fish farms to attain sustainable aquaculture which they are population density, species diversity, brood stock'smanagements, capacity determination, growth and harvesting managements in cultural ponds. As results, these guideline and indexes were codifies for these fish farms and propagation centers. It's obviously that these sustainable patterns can be used for improving of permanent development for this aquacultural industry.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Indicator of bacteria such total coliforms and fecal coliforms are one of the most important environmental factors that effect on water quality. Haraz river is one of three rivers in north of country and it originate from central Alborz. Overall, discharge of unborn sewage, agriculture pesticides, seasonal raining was caused decreasing of quality of the river. Therefore, quality and quantity of the grandwater, surface water and sewage in different zone of this river such Mangol dam is necessary. In this study, total coliforms and fecal coliforms and nematode ovary in 13 stations of Haraz including Sorkhrood, Klodeh, Amol Esar Town, Helomsar, Mangol dam, Karesang, Jalav bridge, Norroud, Tehran 115, Larijan, Abeask, Lasem, Lar (pleur) were surveyed. ECC Chrome agar was used for counting and isolation of coliforms groups and nematode ovary counting was done as formal – ether sedimentation method. The results showed that maximum and minimum of total coliforms in surface water was observed in Sorkhrood (9.4 CFU/100ml) and Lasem (4.2CFU/100ml) and also maximum and minimum of fecal coliforms in Sorkhrood (3/2 CFU / ml) and Lasem (1/1CFU/100ml) respectively. Maximum and minimum of these bacteria in ground water were Abeask (4 CFU /100ml) and Helomsar (9/1 CFU/100ml) (for total coliforms) and Abeask (7/1 CFU/100ml) and Helomsar, Klodeh and Larijan (2/1 CFU/100ml) (for fecal coliforms) respectively. Maximum and minimum of total and fecal coliforms in sewage were Norroud (1/3 CFU/100ml) and Amole Esar Town (2/2 CFU/100ml) (for total coliforms) and Norroud (6/1 CFU/100ml) and Amole Esar Town and Tehran 115 (2/1 CFU/100ml) (for fecal coliforms) respectively. Ovary of Nematode in sewage was 30 and 124 in Norroud and Amole Esar Town respectively. The conclusion of this study was showed that quality of Haraz is low level and not proper for drinking and swimming.
    Keywords: Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: The Gorgan Bay has situated in the South east of the Caspian Sea and water entersthe Bay from the Sea .it covers an area about 450 squar kilometers that is connected to the sea only by the passage of Ashouradeh in the north east of the bay . The water balance is almost constant and is not tidal. In this study, a model made for the bay on the basis of its water quality and quantity. Its reactions evaluated under different qualified scenarios and its surrounding water quality survey during next 29 years. Mike 21 software was used for 2 dimensional modeling . At first hydrodynamic modeling of the bay was done .one of the important factor was water depth which calculated by hydrography method of the bay. Then, a model made for the salinity of the bay. Since, salinity is a stable parameter, a sub-program TM (Mike 21) which has the ability to make a model from the process of advection – dispersion was used. The amount of Manning (0.025) and Dispersion (50) coefficient calculated simultaneously with calibration of salinity model (D:square meter / second). Results from data verification of salinity model indicated about 3 percent mean error. The pollution dispersion type in the bay evaluated at six points of the bay using the method of dot constant source of pollution. Results showed that around 99.9 percent of pollution decreases under the effect of dilution process till the 100 m distance. Then modeling of dissolved oxygen, Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate was done by using of subprogram ECOLAB at the Mike software To make these models, first the sensitivity analysis of these parameters was done. Important parameters chose for model calibration and then data verified and also the model calibrated. The result of data verification test showed the mean error of oxygen, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were respectively about 3, 4, 6.3 and 37 percent. Then modeling made according to four different scenarios which defined on the basis of pollutions originated from aquaculture in the bay (scenario 1: aquaculture at the first half year. Scenario 2: aquaculture at the 2nd half year. Scenario 3: aquaculture at the whole of year. Scenario 4: cultivation of bluga for 3 years). Water quality of the bay and also different amount of aquaculture production surveyed during next 29 years under different scenarios of aquacultures. The places under pollution were included the appropriate places for aquacultures in each scenario that was already determined at the bay .Then the reaction of the Gorgan bay was determined under each scenario. The curves of pollution fluctuations were drawn along with amount of cultivation at the each scenario. At last, appropriate amount of cultivation was calculated at each scenario with considering of self-purification of the bay that does not tend to pollution of the bay. On the other hand, the farms arrange, distances between farms and the number of cultivation ponds at the each farm was calculated. Finally, results showed that the aquaculture capacity of the bay is less than 300 tons per year.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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