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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  In the estimation of glycosidase activity by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent, the stoichiometry of DNS reduction was reported to increase proportionately with the increase in the number of glycosidic linkages present in oligosaccharides liberated by the enzyme. The relationship between increases in DNS reduction and increases in the number of glycosidic bonds was found to be represented by a part of a rectangular hyperbola. The increase was optimum with disaccharide and insignificant when the degree of polymerization (DP) was ≥10. The difference did not arise as a result of the DNSA discriminating between mono- and oligosaccharide oxidation. The relationship stemmed from the acidity of the hydroxyl group adjacent to the reducing group, which repressed DNS reduction. The acidity is likely to decrease with an increase in oligosaccharide chain length. It is suggested that DNS reduction is actually optimum and uniform for all oligosaccharides of DP ≥ 10 and that it is minimum for monosaccharide. Thus the introduction of rectification factors in the estimation of glycosidase activities by the DNS method appears to be justified.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 53 (1997), S. 885-894 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A new expression is devised empirically to accommodate zero and some negative oxidation states in the bond-valence sum approach. The method is worked out in detail for a number of homoleptic copper and nickel complexes of various coordinating atoms in several oxidation states of the metals. An implication of the expression is a linear variation between 1/req and 1/rax in octahedral MX6 moieties, where req and rax are, respectively, the average equatorial and axial bond lengths. This is verified in Cu2+X6 chromophores for X = F, O, N and S. The usefulness of the new expression in assessing the compatibility of a coordination sphere with an oxidation state of a metal ion is demonstrated by exemplary applications to some inorganic complexes, azurin and urease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A chemically defined medium using commercially available α-MEM supplemented with HEPES, L-glutamine, D-glucose, folic acid, D-biotin and adenine supports the luxuriant growth and propagation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. A peak parasite population of about 7.0 × 107/ml at stationary phase and a population doubling time of 11.4 h for high-subpassage promastigotes were obtained. The medium was suitable for transformation of isolated amastigotes from infected hamster spleen. Promastigotes could be detected by culturing kala-azar patients’bone-marrow aspirate or spleen puncture material in this medium. Four out of six freshly transformed isolates gradually adapted and grew well in this medium. Macroscopic colonies appeared on agar plates prepared with the medium within 16–20 days after inoculation. The cloning efficiency was increased about five-fold by glycerol supplementation.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Boehmite (γ-AlOOH) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the two-reverse emulsion technique at 90°±1°C under constant agitation with varying Al3+ concentrations in the aqueous solution. A mixture of cyclohexane and the surfactant, sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), constituted the support solvent in the reverse emulsions. The synthesized particles were characterized by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and FTIR results confirmed crystalline boehmite formation at 90°±1°C. The average particle size of boehmite was found to be 10 nm. The spherical morphology of the boehmite nanoparticles was confirmed by TEM.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel powders of irregular and spherical morphologies were obtained from the bi-component water-based sols following the sol–gel and sol–emulsion–gel methods, respectively. For the synthesis of the oxide microspheres, the surfactant concentration and viscosity of the sols were found to affect the characteristics of the derived microspheres. The gel and calcined powders were investigated by using thermogravimetry analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and particle size analysis. XRD results indicated crystallization of the only phase MgAl2O4 spinel from 200° to 1000°C. Formation of hollow microspheres with a single cavity was identified by SEM.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0044-8486
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: antioxidant reserve ; membrane cholesterol/phospholipid ratio ; lipid peroxidation ; erythrocytes ; Leishmani donovani
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis has been found to be associated with severe anemia and premature lysis of erythrocytes. Peroxidative damage of red cells has been noted in several hemolytic anemias. Present study shows enhanced formation of methemoglobin in hamsters infected withLeishmania donovani. Increased formation of malonyldialdehyde and diene conjugate has been noted in the erythrocytes of the infected animals with the progress of anemia. Results showed decreased activities of protective enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase against peroxidative attack. An increase in the membrane cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and a decrease in membrane fluidity of erythrocytes were observed under the diseased condition. Densitometric scan after SDS-PAGE of red cell membrane of the infected animals revealed significant degradation of band 3 and band 4.1 proteins. The results suggest that alteration in the membrane may lead to reduced life span of the red cells in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: Ca2+-channel blocker ; verapamil ; macrophage ; nifedipine ; Leishmania donovani ; calcium ionophore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Leishmania donovani, the etiological agent for the disease visceral leishmaniasis, attach themselves to the macrophages for initiation of the disease. The attachment process has been found to be regulated by Ca2+ ions. Verapamil, a Ca2+-channel blocker inhibits Leishmania-macrophage attachment. The inhibitory effect is increased with time. Nifedipine, another Ca2+-channel blocker exhibits the same effect. The attachment process is stimulated by Ca2+-ionophore alone. The inhibitory effects of the calcium channel blockers are reversed by the ionophore.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: barium titanate ; sol-emulsion-gel ; surfactant ; micelle ; critical micelle concentration (CMC)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Shaped tetragonal barium titanate (BaTiO3) particles were prepared by the sol-emulsion-gel method with systematic variation of the concentration of a non-ionic surfactant in the organic phase (“oil phase”) of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions above or below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). An acetate-based sol with equivalent oxide ratio BaO : TiO2 = 1 : 1 was selected for the study. Micelle formation of the surfactant and their self-aggregation apparently played an important role in controlling the shape and size of the droplets and accordingly shape and size of the final barium titanate particles resulting therefrom. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that with low concentration of the surfactant (2–5 vol%) ill-formed spheres were obtained. Spherical particles were formed with increasing the surfactant concentration to 7 vol%. At 12 vol% of the surfactant, rod-like particles were first found to form, which with further increase in surfactant concentration to 15–20 vol%, gradually transformed to cube-like/lamellar type particles. Attempts have been made to explain the various particle shapes in terms of surfactant aggregation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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