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  • 1
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; avoidance ; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) ; personal monitoring ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, we examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City Study.(1,2) This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. We compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, we found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, we compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, we discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; environmental tobacco smoke ; markers ; nicotine ; personal monitoring ; saliva cotinine ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average cotinine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whose only exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; distributional analysis ; dose distributions ; environmental tobacco smoke ; Monte Carlo ; nicotine ; solanesol ; ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions (e.g., whether the distribution was log normal for a given constituent) for the workplace exposure. Next, we present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, we derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 week) and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Retroviral insertional mutagenesis in BXH2 and AKXD mice induces a high incidence of myeloid leukemia and B- and T-cell lymphoma, respectively. The retroviral integration sites (RISs) in these tumors thus provide powerful genetic tags for the discovery of genes involved in cancer. Here we report ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0444
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A collection ofn setsA 1, ...,A n is said to beindependent provided every set of the formX 1 ⋂ ... ⋂X n is nonempty, where eachX i is eitherA i orA i c . We give a simple characterization for when translates of a given box form an independent set inR d. We use this to show that the largest number of such boxes forming an independent set inR d is given by ⌊3d/2⌋ ford≥2. This settles in the negative a conjecture of Grünbaum (1975), which states that the maximum size of an independent collection of sets homothetic to a fixed convex setC inR d isd+1. It also shows that the bound of 2d of Rényiet al. (1951) for the maximum number of boxes (not necessarily translates of a given one) with sides parallel to the coordinate axes in an independent collection inR d can be improved for these special collections.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, we examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City This study.(1,2) This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. We compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, we found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, we compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, we discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discussthe merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 11/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average cotinine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whoseonly exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristicsof those distributions (e.g., whether the distribution was log normal for agiven constituent) for the workplace exposure. Next, we present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, we derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions providedinformation beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 week) and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1544-6115
    Source: Berkeley Electronic Press Academic Journals
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We present a new approach to molecular classification based on mRNA comparisons. Our method, referred to as the top-scoring pair(s) (TSP) classifier, is motivated by current technical and practical limitations in using gene expression microarray data for class prediction, for example to detect disease, identify tumors or predict treatment response. Accurate statistical inference from such data isdifficult due to the small number of observations, typically tens, relative to the large number of genes, typically thousands. Moreover, conventional methods from machine learning lead to decisions which are usually very difficult to interpret in simple or biologically meaningful terms. In contrast, the TSP classifier provides decision rules which i) involve very few genes and only relative expression values (e.g., comparing the mRNA counts within a singlepair of genes); ii) are both accurate and transparent; and iii) provide specific hypotheses for follow-up studies. In particular, the TSP classifier achieves prediction rates with standard cancer data that are as high as those of previous studies which use considerably more genes and complex procedures. Finally, the TSP classifier is parameter-free, thus avoiding the type of over-fitting and inflated estimates of performance that result when all aspects of learning a predictor are not properly cross-validated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-01
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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