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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In order to demonstrate the localization of an anti-allergic agent, Tranilast, in the mast cells, light microscopic radioautography was performed. The mast cells collected from rat peritoneal cavity were incubated for 0 to 60 min in a medium containing3H-Tranilast. After the incubation, they were fixed, embedded and processed for light microscopic radioautography. The radioautographic silver grains were frequently localized around and over the cytoplasmic granules and their number increased according to the prolongation of incubation time. From the results obtained at present it was demonstrated that Tranilast was rapidly taken into the cytoplasm of mast cells. This phenomenon may suggest an important role of this agent in the inhibition of allergic reactions of mast cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Actin ; Actomyosin ; In vitro Motility assay ; Myosin ; Pollen tube
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Myosin in pollen tubes ofLilium longiflorum was partially purified, using an in vitro motility assay as a monitor. The main components in the partially purified preparation had molecular masses of 110, 120, and 140 kDa in SDS-PAGE. They became bound to actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. Among the components, only that of 120 kDa became bound to ATP and was concluded to be the heavy chain of pollen tube myosin.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell culture ; DNA content ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Mitochondrial genome ; Nicotiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The molecular size of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules and the number of copies of mtDNA per mitochondrion were evaluated from cultured cells of the tobacco BY-2 line derived fromNicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow-2. To determine the DNA content per mitochondrion, protoplasts of cultured cells were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and the intensity of the fluorescence emitted from the mitochondrial nuclei (mt-nuclei) was measured with a video-intensified photon counting microscope system (VIM system). Each mitochondrion except for those undergoing a division contained one mt-nucleus. The most frequently measured size of the DNA in the mitochondria was between 120 and 200 kilobase pairs (kbp) throughout the course of culture of the tobacco cells. Mitochondria containing more than 200 kbp of DNA increased significantly in number 24 h after transfer of the cells into fresh medium but their number fell as the culture continued. Because division of mitochondria began soon after transfer of the cells into fresh medium and continued for 3 days, the change of the DNA content per mitochondrion during the culture must correspond to DNA synthesis of mitochondria in the course of mitochondrial division. By contrast, the analyses of products of digestion by restriction endonucleases indicated that the genome size of the mtDNA was at least 270 kbp. Electron microscopy revealed that mtDNAs were circular molecules and their length ranged from 1 to 35 μm, and 60% of them ranged from 7 to 11 μrn. These results indicate that the mitochondrial genome in tobacco cells consists of multiple species of mtDNA molecules, and mitochondria do not contain all the mtDNA species. Therefore, mitochondria are heterogeneous in mtDNA composition.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell cycle ; Microtubule ; Microtubule organizing center ; Synchronization ; Tobacco BY-2 cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A 49 kDa protein in tobacco BY-2 cells has been found to be cross-reactive with antibodies raised against a 51 kDa protein that was isolated from sea urchin centrosomes and identified as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in animal cells. Tracing the fate of the 49 kDa protein during progression of the cell cycle in highly synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells revealed that this protein was colocalized with plant microtubules (MTs): the location of the 49 kDa protein coincided with preprophase bands (PPBs), mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts. Furthermore, between the M and G1 phases, the 49 kDa protein was observed in the perinuclear regions, in which the initials of MTs are organizing to form cortical MTs. At the G1 phase the location of the 49 kDa protein in the cell cortex coincided with that of the cortical MTs. It appeared that the 49 kDa protein in the cell cortex was transported as granules from the perinuclear regions. Thus, it is highly probable that the 49 kDa protein, which reacts with antibodies against the 51 kDa protein in sea urchin centrosomes, plays the role of an MTOC in plant cells. Thus, the mechanisms for organizing MTs in higher organisms appear to share a common protein, even though the organization of MTs is superficially very different in plant and animal cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell cycle ; Elongation factor 1α ; Microfilament ; Microtubule ; Tobacco BY-2 cell line
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary During cell cycle transition from M to G1 phase, micro-tubules (MTs), organized on the perinuclear region, reached the cell cortex. Microfilaments (MFs) were not involved in this process, however, MFs accumulated to form a ring-like structure in the division plane and from there they elongated toward the distal end in the cell cortex. Subsequently, when MTs elongated along the long axis of the cells, towards the distal end, the MTs ran into and then associated with the predeveloped MFs in the cell cortex, suggesting the involvement of MFs in organizing the parallel oriented MTs in the cell cortex. When cortical MTs were formed in the direction transverse to the long axis of cells, the two structures were again closely associated. Therefore, with regards to the determination of the direction of organizing MTs, predeveloped MFs may have guided the orientation of MTs at the initial stage. Disorganization of MFs in this period, by cytochalasins, prevented the organization of cortical MTs, and resulted in the appearance of abnormal MT configurations. We thus demonstrate the involvement of MFs in determining the orientation and organization of cortical MTs, and discuss the possible role of MFs during this process.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Protoplasma 146 (1988), S. 61-63 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Actin filament ; Actin ring ; Rhodamine-phalloidin ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Tobacco ; Plastid division
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Ring formed actin filaments were observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The change of this structure during culture was followed by fluorescence microscopy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell cycle ; Elongation factor 1α ; Microtubule reorganization ; Microfilament ; Tobacco BY-2 cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The sites of microtubule (MT) reorganization were examined in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. The MTs of these cells were completely destroyed by a combined cold and drug treatment at 0 °C with 100 μM propyzamide for 3 h. After the cells were washed and cultured at 30 °C, the reorganization of MTs was observed in detail. Sites for MT reorganization at each stage of the cell cycle were identified on the cell cortex and nuclei, the mitotic apparatus, the nuclei (or the nuclei and cell cortex), and the cell cortex in the S-G2 phase, M phase, M/G1 interface, and g1 phase, respectively. The polypeptide synthesis elongation factor (EF)-1α is co-localized with these sites of MT reorganization. At some stages, microfilaments (MFs) were found to be involved in the reorganization of MTs. Based on these results, the mode of MT reorganization during cell cycle progression is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-868X
    Keywords: Tachibana Bay ; water exchange ; T-S diagram ; tidal residual current ; ghost shrimp larvae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We have investigated the water mass distribution and circulation in Tachibana Bay, which is located in the junction area between Ari-ake Sound and Amakusa-Nada in western Kyushu, Japan. This was done to clarify the mechanism by which ghost shrimp larvae, originating from a sandflat of Amakusa-Shimoshima Island, are transported. Temperature and salinity data repeatedly obtained over the area of Tachibana Bay show that relatively low salinity water lies over northern part of the bay, while high salinity water lies over southern part of the bay. The location of the low salinity water margin tends to depend on the amount of rainfall several days before the observation. A large amount of rainfall makes a clear boundary between low and high salinity waters. Current velocity data indicate an eastward mean flow just north of Tomioka, northern tip of Amakusa-Shimoshima Island, and a clockwise mean flow approaching the Tomioka Bay sandflat, which should be suitable for the on-shore transport of the ghost shrimp postlarvae. Current measurements with shipboard ADCP just west of Hayasaki Strait, at the entrance of Ari-ake Sound, show that a westward tidal residual current tends to incline to the north, with evidence of a density current in the northern part of the western Hayasaki Strait.
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