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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Silver-palladium alloy films were made by a thick-film technique using several metal powders prepared by the spray-pyrolysis method. Two types of powders were used: silver-palladium alloy powders (15 mol % Pd and 30 mol % Pd) and mixtures of silver and palladium powders. The fired films were about 2–3 Μm in thickness. The alloy particles sintered uniformly in firing, whereas, in the case of the powder mixtures, the alloying of silver and palladium particles caused uneven particle growth and large voids were formed in the fired films. For this reason the films made from the alloy powders had better conductive properties than those made from the powder mixtures. The resistivities of the films made from the alloy powders were close to the intrinsic value for silver-palladium alloys. Further, the oxidation of palladium during heating in air was significantly suppressed in the alloy powders when the palladium content was lower than 30 mol % in accordance with thermodynamic considerations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Composite particles ; heterocoagulation ; magnetic particles ; encapsulation ; seed polymerization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A new synthetic process to prepare composite particles with multilayers, comprised of usual polymer latices, ultra-fine magnetic particles, and a polystyrene layer was examined under various solution conditions. First, the synthetic conditions of heterocoagulates, consisted of polystyrene latices (2a=180∼900 nm) and NiO·ZnO·Fe2O3 particles (2a=20 nm), were investigated as a function of medium pH, particle concentration, and particle size ratio, based on the concept of the heterocoagulation theory as applied by Harding et al. Regular heterocoagulates were generated under suitable medium and mixing conditions, and that their total size can be controlled by selecting the size of the original polymer latices used as the core. Second, the best encapsulation condition of the heterocoagulates via emulsion polymerization with polystyrene monomer was surveyed. The encapsulation of the heterocoagulates was greatly promoted by pretreatment with oleate molecules, although there is no tendency for the encapsulation when the surfactant-free bare heterocoagulates are used as the core.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Esophagus ; Desalination ; Coupled NaCl transport ; Water permeability ; Eel,Anguilla japonica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To characterize mechanisms of esophageal desalination, osmotic water permeability and ion fluxes were measured in the isolated esophagus of the seawater eel. The osmotic permeability coefficient in the seawater eel esophagus was 2·10-4 cm·s-1. This value was much lower than those in tight epithelial, although the eel esophagus is a leaky epithelium with a tissue resistance of 77 ohm·cm-2. When the esophagus was bathed in normal Ringer solutions on both sides no net ion and water fluxes were observed. However, when mucosal NaCl concentration was increased by a factor of 3, Na+ und Cl- ions were transferred from mucosa to serosa (desalination). If only Na+ or Cl- concentration in the mucosal fluid was increased by a factor of 3, net Na+ and Cl- fluxes were reduced to 30–40%, indicating that 60–70% of the net Na+ and Cl- fluxes are coupled mutually. The coupled NaCl transport seems to be effective in desalting the luminal high NaCl. The remaining 30–40% of the total Na+ and Cl- fluxes seems to be due to a simple diffusion, because these components are independent of each other and follow their electrochemical gradients, and also because these fluxes remain even after treatment with NaCN or ouabain. A half of the coupled NaCl transport could be explained by a Na+/H+−Cl-/HCO 3 - double exchanger on the apical membrane of the esophageal epithelium, because mucosal amiloride and 4.4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid inhibited the net Na+ and Cl- fluxes by approximately 30%. The other half of the coupled NaCl transport, which follows their electrochemical gradients, still remains to be explained.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A broadband reflectometric system in O-mode operation has been developed for the density profile determination, MHD and turbulent fluctuation measurement, and evaluation of the particle diffusion coefficient in the JT-60 tokamak. For the profile determination, full Ka-Q band frequencies of BWOs have been swept in 750 μs, in order to minimize the effect of Doppler shift due to the fluctuation of reflection layers. The heterodyne fixed-frequency reflectometer has unveiled its effectiveness to probe MHD activities, diagnosing the m=1 tearing mode oscillations. It has also enabled the observation of the dramatic suppression of edge plasma density fluctuations at the L to H-mode transition in the LHCD limiter plasma. Furthermore, the propagation delay of density pulses has been observed by different fixed-frequency channels during a series of sawteeth, from which the particle diffusion coefficient was evaluated, with a newly proposed method applicable to fully diffusive plasmas.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Four hydrogen pellets, two of 3 mm(large-closed-square)×3 mml pellets and two of 4 mmF(Slashthrough accent mark)×4 mml pellets, with the velocity of ∼2.3 km/s, were injected to OH and NB heated plasmas by a four-barrel pneumatic injector on the JT-60 tokamak. The pellet ablation profile was estimated by the measurement of the Hα emissions originating from the ablation cloud using a fiber optics array combined with the Hα -filtered multichannel photodiode. The fiber optics array consisting of ten channel bundles views the pellet pass in the vacuum vessel. The optical fiber was developed to tolerate baking up to 300 °C. The measured ablation profiles were compared with the calculated one by the neutral gas shielding model with a self-limiting effect. A good agreement was obtained between measured and calculated ablation profiles in OH plasmas; however, the fast-ion-induced ablation needed to be taken into account in the calculation for NB-heated plasmas.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 59 (1988), S. 1866-1868 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Radiation losses from the main plasma of the JAERI Tokamak-60 (JT-60) were measured by a 15-channel bolometer array and those from divertor chambers in the ion and electron drift sides were each measured by two bolometers. The bolometric detector consisting of three layers (5-μm-thick gold absorber, 7-μm-thick polyimide foil, and 0.1-μm-thick gold resistor grid) was developed for this measurement. In typical diverted discharges with NB heating, the ratios of power radiated from the main and divertor chambers to the absorbed power were approximately 10% and 20%, respectively. Intense poloidal asymmetries of radiated power localized near the X point outside the torus were observed in diverted discharges. The profiles of the radiated power were reconstructed by an Abel inversion with an asymmetric term. On the other hand, a poloidally asymmetric radiation band localized near the inner wall, "marfe,'' was observed for dense plasmas in limiter discharges with neutral beam heating.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Livers of LEC rats were histochemically stained for copper according to the modified Timm's method, which includes trichloroacetic acid (TCA) treatment. TCA pretreatment was effective in removing zinc and iron, leaving copper as the major metal in the liver. Hepatocytes in 3-month-old rats were stained intensely by the modified Timm's method, both in frozen sections and in paraffin-embedded specimens. The centrilobular hepatocytes were usually stained, but positive cells were also randomly distributed in the hepatic lobes, showing a mosaic pattern. The staining was intensified in 8- compared to 3-month-old LEC rats. In contrast hepatocytes from LEA rats, the normal counterpart of LEC rats, were faintly stained for copper. Proliferating cholangioles found in older LEC rats were shown to lack copper deposition, and hepatocellular carcinoma showed less copper deposits than the hepatocytes surrounding the tumor. The copper staining was augmented in livers of LEC rats subjected to copper-loading, but was less intense in the livers treated with d-penicillamine. The staining intensity under the various experimental conditions showed good correlation with the copper concentration. Lysosomal deposition of copper in hepatocytes was demonstrated by electron microscopic analysis for copper. Thus the modified Timm's method was shown to produce valuable results in demonstrating copper in LEC rat livers, providing important information for an understanding of the mechanism of copper deposition and hepatic disease of the animal.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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