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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Samples of soils and vegetation from the mining area of South-West Sardinia (Italy) were analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu content. The area (more than 100 km2) is inhabited by many thousands of people; land utilization includes mainly grapes on some small plains and permanent sheep pasture on the hills. The levels of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be exceptionally high in most samples. Lead concentration was up to 71000 μg g−1 in the soils and 4000 jig g−1 in vegetation; Cd concentration was found up to 665 μg g−1 in soils and 26.5 μg g−1 in vegetation. The heavy metal content of some soil samples was highly variable. Data show that Pb is easily absorbed by plant roots and translocated to foliage. In spite of the high heavy metal level, no signs of toxicity were apparent in vegetation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: extraction ; numification index ; isoelectric focusing ; organic matter ; worm cast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The humification index (HI) values of three different manures and earthworm casts were calculated for three different extractant solutions (0.5M sodium hydroxide, 0.1M sodium pyrophosphate pH 7 and 0.1M sodium pyrophosphate plus 0.1M NaOH). The alkaline sodium pyrophosphate solution was found to be the most suitable because of both its extraction efficiency and the quality of the organic matter extracted which allows a good characterization of the stabilization degree attained by composting. Neutral sodium pyrophosphate extracts also show characteristic HI values for different samples but lower extraction efficiencies. The HI values for sodium hydroxide extracts show only little differences between manures and composts. The good correspondence found between HI data and isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns confirmed on one side that humification indexes give a quantitative measure of the humification degree, on the other side that IEF is a suitable technique in order to obtain qualitative informations on organic matter stabilization in earthworm casts.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: Nitrogen balance ; 15N ; oxamide ; slow release fertilizer ; soil microbial biomass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Slow release N fertilizers are receiving increasing attention for use on turf grass, but their fate in the plant-soil system is still poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the uptake and recovery of N by a mixture of grasses when applied as either urea or oxamide in different diameter granules using a tracer technique (15N). The effects of the N source on soil biomass, root density and amount of readily available organic C in soil were also evaluated. In a first experiment oxamide in 4–5 mm diameter granules was compared with urea. The initial N absorption, 40 days after fertilization (d.a.f.), was higher for urea (23.5%) than for oxamide (12.1%), but after 64 days absorption efficiencies were about the same (11%) for both fertilizers. Fertilizer-derived N lost by leaching was much greater from the urea-fertilized soil (1.57 g), compared with losses from oxamide-fertilized soil (0.05 g). The total residual fertilizer N remaining in the system at the end of the experiment was 26.7% of applied urea N and 39.6% of applied oxamide N. Cumulated absorption efficiencies, calculated after dismantling the lysimeters, were 43.1% for urea and 54.8% for oxamide (roots included). A priming effect caused by a larger uptake of soil N because of the better root development was found in the oxamide-treated lysimeter. Fertilization with oxamide also caused an increase in the amount of soil microbial biomass. In a second experiment, the efficiencies and fertilizer N uptake rates from oxamide applied at two different granule sizes (1–2 mm and 5–10 mm) were evaluated. The amount of soil N taken up by the grass was linearly related to root density (r = 0.92).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997), S. 1179-1181 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present a novel surface-controlled bistable nematic liquid crystal display. This black and white device uses simple monostable planar anchorings and a dielectrically positive nematic. The two bistable textures are, respectively, quasiuniform U and almost half-turn twisted T. Short electric pulses break the surface anchorings. Hydrodynamically coupled breaking of both anchorings creates T. U is obtained by breaking only one anchoring. Write and erase times for high resolution video are achieved at voltages compatible with the usual drivers.© 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0020-1693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; CO2−C evolution ; Heavy metals ; Microbial biomass C ; Metabolic quotient ; Soil incubation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In this work we studied the influence of Pb, Zn, and Tl on microbial biomass survival and activity during a laboratory incubation of soil. In comparison to uncontaminated soil, the microbial biomass C decreased sharply in soil contaminated with Zn and Tl, whereas the addition of Pb did not have any significant inhibitory effect on the level of microbial biomass C. Zn displayed the greatest biocidal effect, confirmed by the measurement of the death rate quotient (q D). The microbial activity, measured as CO2 evolution, increased significantly in contaminated soils, emphasizing the need of living organisms to expend more energy to survive. The greater demand for energy by microorganisms in order to cope with the toxicity of pollutants was also confirmed by measurement of the metabolic quotient (q CO2). In order to determine whether soil microorganisms affect the bioavailability of these metals through their mobilization and release, we studied the relationships between available Pb, Zn, and Tl, and microbial biomass C. The water-soluble fraction of Tl, available Tl, and Zn, and microbial biomass C were related significantly, but not Pb.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Humic substances ; Cucumber ; Iron nutrition ; Iron deficiency ; Root acidification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The capacity of Fe-deficient cucumber plants to utilise water-extractable and pyrophosphate-extractable humic substances as a source of Fe was investigated. Plants were grown for 13 days in nutrient solution in the presence or absence of Fe and during the last 7 days water-extractable and pyrophosphate-extractable humic substances were added to the solution at a final concentration of 5 μg organic C ml–1. The water-extractable humic fraction did not significantly modify leaf area and dry matter accumulation, leaf total Fe or chlorophyll content of cucumber plants adequately supplied with Fe. In contrast, pyrophosphate-extractable humic substances caused a slight but significant decrease of all the leaf parameters considered, with the exception of the chlorophyll content. Root Fe content of Fe-sufficient plants was decreased by more than 50% in the presence of each humified fraction. Addition of each humic fraction to Fe-deficient plants led to a partial disappearance of leaf chlorosis symptoms with a significant increase in chlorophyll and leaf Fe content. Fe content of roots was also significantly increased in Fe-deficient plants by the addition of humic substances to the nutrient solution. These results show that Fe-deficient cucumber plants can utilise Fe contained in the two fractions of humified organic matter. However, by calculating the amount of total Fe accumulated per plant in the presence of water-extractable or pyrophosphate-extractable humic substances, it could be seen that Fe contained in the water-extractable humic fraction was almost totally used by Fe-deficient cucumber plants, while that present in the pyrophosphate-extractable fraction could only be partially absorbed. The results strongly support a role of humified organic matter in Fe nutrition of plants and are discussed in terms of a possible interaction between soil humic substances and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the plant response to Fe deficiency.
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