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  • 1
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    In:  J. Geophys. Res., Warszawa, Polish Geothermal Association, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 2557-2567, pp. B05406, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1974
    Keywords: Plate tectonics ; Modelling ; Review article ; JGR
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-04-04
    Description: Bends in volcanic hotspot lineaments, best represented by the large elbow in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, were thought to directly record changes in plate motion. Several lines of geophysical inquiry now suggest that a change in the locus of upwelling in the mantle induced by mantle dynamics causes bends in hotspot tracks. Inverse modeling suggests that although deep flow near the core-mantle boundary may have played a role in the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, capture of a plume by a ridge, followed by changes in sub-Pacific mantle flow, can better explain the observations. Thus, hotspot tracks can reveal patterns of past mantle circulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tarduno, John -- Bunge, Hans-Peter -- Sleep, Norm -- Hansen, Ulrich -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 3;324(5923):50-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1161256.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. john@earth.rochester.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19342579" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1990-06-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sleep, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Jun 1;248(4959):1141.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17733388" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-09-24
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 199: 135-150.
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: Lithosphere that formed in Archaean and possibly early Proterozoic time is thicker, more buoyant, and geochemically distinct from lithosphere that formed after about 2.3 Ga. Mantle xenolith and seismic data indicate that some cratonic roots, or keels', extend to depths of c. 250 km, compared with normal continental lithosphere of thickness 150 km or less; yet many cratons have experienced uplift, dyking and kimberlite emplacement, suggesting interactions with hot, rising asthenosphere referred to as mantle plumes. Plumes supply additional heat to the base of the lithospheric plates, whose base can be heated and entrained in the flow (thermal erosion). How have these cratonic keels persisted despite their interactions with mantle plumes? The geometry of cratonic keels during their interactions with mantle plumes is a critical factor controlling keel preservation. To a laterally spreading plume head, cratonic keels appear as major obstacles, and the hot, buoyant plume material ponds beneath thinner lithosphere. Our model simulations show that deep keels deflect mantle plume material and that steep gradients at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary between Archaean keels and normal' lithosphere will focus flow, leading to localized adiabatic decompression melting. Plume processes can lead to a reduction in the breadth of a cratonic root where the plume rises beneath the craton, regardless of the initial breadth of the craton. Where the plume rises beneath a craton the hot plume material will spread laterally beneath the keel and attain thicknesses of tens of kilometres. This transfers heat to the base of the lithosphere and could generate small volumes of melt at considerable depth, depending on the composition of the lower lithosphere. We have used model simulations of plumes beneath Africa to predict the magnitude and direction of seismic anisotropy caused by lateral flow of hot plume material beneath and around a cratonic keel. The shear-wave splitting in our models is greatest at the edge of the cratonic keel, and its azimuth is parallel to the plume flow direction.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: plate tectonics ; seafloor spreading ; rift propagation ; rift failure ; lithospheric transfer ; magmatic differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract ALVIN investigations have defined the fine-scale structural and volcanic patterns produced by active rift and spreading center propagation and failure near 95.5° W on the Galapagos spreading center. Behind the initial lithospheric rifting, which is propagating nearly due west at about 50 km m.y.−1, a triangular block of preexisting lithosphere is being stretched and fractured, with some recent volcanism along curving fissures. A well-organized seafloor spreading center, an extensively faulted and fissured volcanic ridge, develops ~ 10 km (~ 200,000 years) behind the tectonic rift tip. Regional variations in the chemical compositions of the youngest lavas collected during this program contrast with those encompassing the entire 3 m.y. of propagation history for this region. A maximum in degree of magmatic differentiation occurs about 9 km behind the propagating rift tip, in a region of diffuse rifting. The propagating spreading center shows a gentle gradient in magmatic differentiation culminating at the SW-curving spreading center tip. Except for the doomed rift, which is in a constructional phase, tectonic activity also dominates over volcanic activity along the failing spreading system. In contrast to the propagating rift, failing rift lavas show a highly restricted range of compositions consistent with derivation from a declining upwelling zone accompanying rift failure. The lithosphere transferred from the Cocos to the Nazca plate by this propagator is extensively faulted and characterized by ubiquitous talus in one of the most tectonically disrupted areas of seafloor known. The pseudofault scarps, where the preexisting lithosphere was rifted apart, appear to include both normal and propagator lavas and are thus more lithologically complex than previously thought. Biological communities, probably vestimentiferan tubeworms, occur near the top of the outer pseudofault scarp, although no hydrothermal venting was observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 395 (1998), S. 788-791 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The geology of northern and central Africa is characterized by broad plateaux, narrower swells and volcanism occurring from ∼45 Myr ago to the present. The greatest magma volumes occur on the >1,000-km-wide Ethiopian and east African plateaux, which are transected by the Red Sea, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 409 (2001), S. 1083-1091 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500–700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0084-6597
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The tectonic style of Mars is dominated by vertical motion, perhaps more than any of the terrestrial planets. The imprint of this tectonic activity has left a surface widely faulted even though younger volcanism has masked the expression of tectonism in many places. Geological activity associated with the Tharsis and, to a lesser extent, Elysium provinces is responsible for a significant portion of this faulting, while the origins of the remaining features are enigmatic in many cases. The origin and evolution of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces, in terms of their great elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style, has sparked intense debate over the last fifteen years. Central to these discussions are the relative roles of structural uplift and volcanic construction in the creation of immense topographic relief. For example, it is argued that the presence of very old and cratered terrain high on the Tharsis rise, in the vicinity of Claritas Fossae, points to structural uplift of an ancient crust. Others have pointed out, however, that there is no reason that this terrain could not be of volcanic origin and thus part of the constructional mechanism.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 484-486
    Format: application/pdf
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