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  • 1
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    In:  Geophys. J. Int., Leipzig, 3-4, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 153-161, pp. L19606, (ISBN: 0-12-018847-3)
    Publication Date: 2002
    Keywords: Nuclear explosion ; Seismology ; Earthquake ; Magnitude ; P-waves ; Discrimination ; GJI
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  • 2
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    In:  Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Luxembourg, Deutsche Geophys. Gesellschaft, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 197-211, pp. B09316, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2005
    Keywords: Seismology ; Earthquake ; China ; Discrimination ; Nuclear explosion ; CTBT ; Magnitude ; BSSA
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-12-01
    Description: The Burma arc links the Himalaya to the Andaman-Sumatra trench, and comprehension of the geological features in the region is vital to understand the active tectonic processes in the area. Subduction on the Sumatra trench produced the devastating 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M (sub w) approximately 9.0), but the mechanisms accommodating relative India-Sundaland motion in Burma are still unknown. Previous seismological studies of the area use only earthquake catalog hypocenters, so structural details of subducted material remain poorly understood. Here, accurate relative hypocenters for 81 earthquakes are estimated using first arrivals picked from regional and teleseismic recordings. Depth determination is improved using measured travel-time differences between P onsets and depth phases (pP and sP). The results clearly illustrate a slab 21 degrees -25 degrees N dipping approximately 25 degrees at 40-80 km deep, approximately 40 degrees at 80-120 km deep, and approximately 60 degrees at 120-160 km deep, and its strike follows the Indo-Burman ranges. At latitudes 〉25 degrees N earthquakes become more shallow, and a diffuse picture of hypocenters with an east-west lateral discontinuity at depth is observed, indicating lateral deformation of the slab. Previous studies suggest there is a transition at approximately 90 km deep from shallower strike-slip earthquakes to deeper thrust-type events. Here, accurate depth estimates, combined with confirmation of two Global Centroid Moment Tensor solutions using body-wave modeling, shows that thrust and strike-slip earthquakes both occur deeper than 100 km in the Burma arc.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-09-10
    Description: The seismic wavefield mainly contains reflected, refracted and direct waves but energy related to elastic scattering can also be identified at frequencies of 1 Hz and higher. The scattered, high-frequency seismic wavefield contains information on the small-scale structure of the Earth's crust, mantle and core. Due to the high thermal conductivity of mantle materials causing rapid dissipation of thermal anomalies, the Earth's small-scale structure most likely reveals details of the composition of the interior, and, is therefore essential for our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of the Earth. Using specific ray configurations we can identify scattered energy originating in the lower mantle and under certain circumstances locate its point of origin in the Earth allowing further insight into the structure of the lowermost mantle. Here we present evidence, from scattered PKP waves, for a heterogeneous structure at the core–mantle boundary (CMB) beneath southern Africa. The structure rises approximately 80 km above the CMB and is located at the eastern edge of the African LLSVP. Mining-related and tectonic seismic events in South Africa, with m b from 3.2 to 6.0 recorded at epicentral distances of 119.3° to 138.8° from Yellowknife Array (YKA) (Canada), show large amplitude precursors to PKP df arriving 3–15 s prior to the main phase. We use array processing to measure slowness and backazimuth of the scattered energy and determine the scatterer location in the deep Earth. To improve the resolution of the slowness vector at the medium aperture YKA we present a new application of the F -statistic. The high-resolution slowness and backazimuth measurements indicate scattering from a structure up to 80 km tall at the CMB with lateral dimensions of at least 1200 km by 300 km, at the edge of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The forward scattering nature of the PKP probe indicates that this is velocity-type scattering resulting primarily from changes in elastic parameters. The PKP scattering data are in agreement with dynamically supported dense material related to the Large Low Shear Velocity Province.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-15
    Description: The generalized F method, developed for teleseismic signal detection at small-aperture arrays, is extended to medium-aperture arrays and regional-distance signals using a multiple-filter technique. The technique allows the continuous estimate of the instantaneous amplitude and phase of the array seismograms, while at the same time allowing time-domain beamforming, making the method applicable to situations where the transit time of the signal across an array is much greater than the signal duration. The method is tested by application to waveform data from 22 seismometer arrays of the International Monitoring System, being set up to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A comparison with the results of the traditional signal detection method used by the International Data Centre (IDC) shows that the F detector increases candidate first P associations with IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin events, whereas at the same time halving the overall number of detections. The F method increases the number of associations at 21 of the 22 arrays, and for all signal slownesses.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-07-05
    Description: The ability to confidently estimate the depths of small-to-medium sized (3.5 ≤ m b  ≤ 5.5) seismic disturbances is important both in plate tectonics studies, and when monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Seismic source depths can be determined by identification of the teleseismic depth phases pP and sP , and also by modelling surface wave amplitude spectra. The radiation pattern of the teleseismic depth phase pP and fundamental mode Rayleigh amplitudes show that the effectiveness of these methods of earthquake depth estimation is dependent on the orientation of the focal mechanism and the station locations. For some focal mechanisms, the predicted amplitude of the teleseismic depth phase pP will only be large for stations in certain locations, and the Rayleigh wave spectral nulls that tightly constrain the seismic source depth when modelling surface wave amplitude spectra often only occur for a limited range of azimuths. In this study, we show that for sources where Rayleigh wave spectral nulls are not observed and the source depth cannot be constrained using the surface wave amplitude spectra, the focal mechanism obtained by modelling Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude spectra can be used to identify the locations of stations where pP should have a large amplitude and hence be easiest for an analyst to identify. The increased global coverage of seismometer stations means that there is an increased likelihood that stations exist in the locations where the predicted amplitude of pP is large. As the identified depth phases are consistent with the focal mechanism this approach allows increased confidence to be placed in the identified depth phases and hence the estimated source depth. This approach could potentially be used with other methods of focal mechanism estimation provided that the method used to estimate the focal mechanism is independent of the source depth.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The Oligocene – Miocene Maikop Formation is the key source rock in the South Caspian and Kura Basins. The Maikop is composed of a thick (up to 3 km) succession of clay‐rich mudstones containing up to 15% total organic carbon (TOC). Despite decades of study, the mudstones often lack precise age control – Maikop strata rarely contain diagnostic microfaunal assemblages which can be used for dating, stratigraphic correlation, or constraining the depositional setting. Using rhenium‐osmium geochronology, this study adds important numerical age data for the Maikop Formation. Of five sample suites analysed from the Kura Basin, eastern Azerbaijan, one Re‐Os data‐set produced a significant range in 187Re/188Os versus 187Os/188Os space to yield an isochron of 17.2 ± 3.2 Ma (Early Miocene). Other sample suites yielded imprecise Re‐Os age constraints as a result of variable initial 187Os/188Os values and a limited range in 187Re/188Os versus 187Os/188Os space. The initial 187Os/188Os values of these data‐sets were compared with the known 187Os/188Os values of seawater for the past 70 Ma to provide more qualitative age constraints. Pre‐Maikopian strata from the Perikeshkul locality were found to coincide in 187Os/188Os values with an isotope excursion at the Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT), therefore indicating that deposition of Maikopian strata began around the EOT. While values such as this match well with global values, there are several 187Os/188Os values that are not easily explained by global ratios. Intervals with initial 187Os/188Os values that deviate significantly from global 187Os/188Os values suggest periodic basin restriction and the development of anoxia at discrete times as the basin transitioned towards a closed system. High Os abundances outside of expected global values are often coupled with enrichment in detrital elements (Al, Ti, Ga, Sc and La) and changes in basin circulation, suggesting changing basinal conditions and sediment routing dynamics related to the initial uplift of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, changes in sediment provenance, or changing proximity to the sediment source. Through generation of isochron age dates and imprecise Re‐Os age constraints from the Maikop Formation, we gain a better understanding of the timing and nature of the evolution of the South Caspian Basin during this critical time period. Better age constrains will also help to better constrain the wealth of geochemical information already gathered within this petroleum‐rich basin.
    Print ISSN: 0141-6421
    Electronic ISSN: 1747-5457
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-03-01
    Description: The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a global ban on nuclear explosions, is currently in a ratification phase. Under the CTBT, an International Monitoring System (IMS) of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasonic and radionuclide sensors is operational, and the data from the IMS is analysed by the International Data Centre (IDC). The IDC provides CTBT signatories basic seismic event parameters and a screening analysis indicating whether an event exhibits explosion characteristics (for example, shallow depth). An important component of the screening analysis is a statistical test of the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics using empirical measurements of seismic energy (magnitudes). The established magnitude used for event size is the body-wave magnitude (denoted m b) computed from the initial segment of a seismic waveform. IDC screening analysis is applied to events with m b greater than 3.5. The Rayleigh wave magnitude (denoted M S) is a measure of later arriving surface wave energy. Magnitudes are measurements of seismic energy that include adjustments (physical correction model) for path and distance effects between event and station. Relative to m b, earthquakes generally have a larger M S magnitude than explosions. This article proposes a hypothesis test (screening analysis) using M S and m b that expressly accounts for physical correction model inadequacy in the standard error of the test statistic. With this hypothesis test formulation, the 2009 Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea announced nuclear weapon test fails to reject the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics. ©2013 Springer Basel (outside the USA)
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2005-02-01
    Description: Earthquakes that occur near known nuclear test sites are invaluable for evaluating the capabilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS), currently being established to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). On 13 March 2003 a seismic disturbance with magnitude m (sub b) (National Earthquake Information Center [NEIC]) 4.8 occurred near the Chinese nuclear test site at Lop Nor, southern Xinjiang. Here we attempt to identify this disturbance as an earthquake by using three types of seismic data: (1) teleseismic P waves recorded at IMS stations; (2) long-period surface waves recorded at a network of stations in Eurasia that simulates the proposed IMS seismic network in this region, and (3) long-period full waveform (P, S, and surface wave) modeling at station WMQ, which is approximately 250 km from the reported epicenter of the 13 March 2003 disturbance. We find that all impulsive teleseismic P-wave onsets show compressive first motion and that discrimination using the m (sub b) :M (sub s) criterion requires assumptions that cannot be justified on theoretical grounds. However, by combining the three data types, we conclude that the observations are consistent with a double-couple source with strike phi = 125+ or -10 degrees , dip delta = 40+ or -10 degrees , rake lambda = 90+ or -10 degrees , and moment M (sub 0) 5.5+ or -1X10 (super 15) N m. That said, consistency of the seismic wave field with a double couple does not immediately rule out an explosion source, because tectonic release accompanying an explosion can make it impossible to resolve the isotropic moment using long-period data. The strongest argument for an earthquake is that both the regional surface waves, and waveform modeling at WMQ, give an estimated focal depth of 6+ or -1 km. This result reinforces the importance of focal depth determination to CTBT monitoring, in particular, for shallow earthquakes with mechanisms that are close to perfect 45 degrees reverse-dip-slip, which are difficult to discriminate by using other methods. Fortunately, depth determination using surface waves is especially favorable for this type of earthquake, if a sufficient number of stations can be used. We therefore recommend that long-period data recorded at auxiliary seismic stations of the IMS be utilized by the International Data Centre to monitor compliance with the CTBT.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2005-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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