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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Environmental governance can be understood as 'the establishment, the reaffirmation or change of institutions (policies, laws, procedures, practices and organisations) to resolve conflicts - overt or latent - between actors over environmental resources. Environmental governance takes place at many levels of society through statutory as well as through customary institutions and with the involvement of a wide range of actors. As societies change and new economic actors as well as new ways of using natural resources develop, the need for the establishment of a statutory framework for environmental governance is accentuated. In 1987, when the Brundtland Commission's report Our Common Future was published, only nine out of 103 developing countries counted on national environmental legislation. In 2008, this number had grown to 86. In addition, also a framework for international environmental governance has been developed. This report provides an overview of these achievements and examines the extent to which development cooperation has contributed. Moreover, based on case studies from Kenya, Nicaragua, Niger and Vietnam, the report summarises the challenges ahead for environmental governance and development cooperation.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Most land reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thus promote economic growth. In addition, recent land reforms increasingly also attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This DIIS Report examines the role of development cooperation in land reforms and the extent to which donor organisations have addressed concerns related to gender equality. The report reviews the reforms in fifteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia, with a focus on Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Nicaragua. Donor organisations have played an important role in land law reforms but also in related legal reforms such as succession law or marriage law, which have an important impact on women's access to and ownership of land. Legislation upholding gender equality is now present, albeit in different degrees, in most of the countries examined. However, the implementation of these legislative frameworks often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination, in part due to social and cultural barriers and the inaccessibility of institutions able to support them. Moreover, gender concerns are also increasingly 'evaporating' in development cooperation policies. This is illustrated by the limited funding allocated to gender issues outside the 'soft' sectors of health and education and the weak implementation of gender mainstreaming in policies. The current inadequacy of gender-disaggregated data both in development cooperation and in national statistics e.g. on issues related to land tenure hampers efforts to effectively address issues related to gender equality and should therefore be corrected.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: This report presents the main findings from a desk study on “Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation.” The study identifies practical options for combining low carbon development with poverty reduction and economic growth in least developed countries, with a focus on energy, agriculture and forestry. The report also focuses on practical recommendations.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimaschutz ; Entwicklungskooperation ; Armutspolitik ; Energiewirtschaft ; Landwirtschaft ; Forstwirtschaft ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: En vista de la creciente competencia por el agua, existe el peligro que particularmente los pobres en las áreas rurales enfrenten cada día más dificultades para cubrir sus necesidades de agua para usos domésticos y productivos. El presente DIIS Working Paper fue elaborado con base a una encuesta llevada a cabo en el año 2008, en el municipio de Condega, Nicaragua; en él se expone un perfil de pobreza de los hogares rurales y se analiza el acceso al agua que tienen los hogares más pobres, menos pobres y no pobres; además de sus contactos con las instituciones que juegan un papel en la gobernanza de agua.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Land is an important asset for people's livelihoods and for economic development in Uganda, where the majority of people live in rural areas. This working paper reviews the literature on Uganda's tenure systems and their relationship with economic activities, focusing primarily on rural agricultural land. The review illustrates that these relationships are complex and context-dependent. Uganda's land reform was introduced with the 1998 Land Act which aims at enhancing tenure security by recognising existing rights to land. It also aims at bringing land onto the market. However, the reform's implementation has been slow and partial so far. The division of labour between land administration institutions is unclear and often institutions, for instance dispute settlement institutions, are inaccessible at the local level. Furthermore, the evidence of any links between the formalisation of land rights, investment and productivity under different tenure systems is inconclusive. Land markets exist irrespective of the tenure systems. Access to credit is quite limited, and not primarily linked to titled land as some scholars suggest. Regional differences, the urban/rural divide and social and gender characteristics are equally important. This review shows, however, that tenure insecurity, in particular in the postconflict context of northern Uganda, discourages investment and leads to lower productivity. A likely path to strengthening agricultural production would be the reinforcement of dispute settlement institutions. Furthermore, despite a gender-sensitive legal framework, women have been discriminated against in both the customary and statutory settings. Improving women's access to land would also seem important. Overall, more systematic research on these issues is required.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Bodenrecht ; Bodenreform ; Agrarproduktion ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Bibliometrie ; Uganda
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: In view of the increasing competition for water, there is a risk that particularly the rural poor will increasingly face difficulties in meeting their water needs for domestic and productive purposes. Based on a questionnaire survey carried out during 2008 in Con Cuong district, Nghe An province, Vietnam, this DIIS Working Paper provides a household poverty profile for the rural population of the district and analyses access to water enjoyed by the poor, less poor and non-poor households and their contact to water governance institutions.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Armut ; Wasserversorgung ; Wasserwirtschaft ; Vietnam
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Genuine protection of declared protected areas depends on an explicit focus on how to manage actors and their mutual relations, i.e. how to regulate their activities, encouraging some and restricting others, rather than on a focus on how to manage an area as a territory. This is one of the conclusions resulting from comparative research undertaken in collaboration between Nicaraguan and Danish researchers on local participation, plant biodiversity and local knowledge on plants in the management of four Nicaragua protected areas. The research project has been financed as part of the Danish environmental sector support programme to Nicaragua and has been coordinated by Helle Munk Ravnborg at DIIS.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Schutzgebiet ; Biodiversität ; Bürgerbeteiligung ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Poverty reduction initiatives should be comprehensive, relational and global in their outlook even though poverty itself is always concrete and experienced in the local context. This is the major idea underlying this DIIS Report. The Report provides a brief overview of contemporary work on conceptualisations of poverty. It outlines characteristics of multi-dimensional and relational approaches to poverty and it examines the increased concern with the relation of inequality to poverty. The Report also touches upon current social, political and economic changes that have significant implications for poverty and the efforts to combat it. Finally, it indicates how different conceptualisations create different dilemmas for poverty reduction activities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Sozialer Wandel ; Entwicklung ; Armutspolitik ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Este informe presenta los resultados de la investigación comparativa sobre la participación local, la biodiversidad florística y el conocimiento local sobre plantas en cuatro áreas protegidas en Nicaragua. La investigación ha sido financiada como parte del programa para al apoyo danés para el sector del medio ambiente en Nicaragua bajo los auspicios del comité de dirección del programa, presidido por la ministra del ambiente y recursos naturales. Los objetivos de protección muchas veces van más allá que la protección forestal para incluir también la protección de la biodiversidad, la integridad de ecosistemas y la calidad de un paisaje. Sin embargo los instrumentos comunes para la protección como son los retenes, los guardabosques, las patrullajes y los puestos de control, que puedan tener utilidad en el manejo forestal, no se prestan para hacer frente a estas calidades que dependen de interacciones espaciales. Esto significativamente limita la protección real. No obstante, más que de instrumentos de conservación y de configuraciones institucionales específicas en sí, el informe concluye que la protección real depende de un enfoque explícito sobre como ‘manejar’, o sea como incentivar y restringir los actores relacionados con el área protegida y sus relaciones mutuas, que de un enfoque sobre como manejar el área protegida.
    Description: Genuine protection of declared protected areas depends on an explicit focus on how to manage actors and their mutual relations, i.e. how to regulate their activities, encouraging some and restricting others, rather than on a focus on how to manage an area as a territory. This is one of the conclusions resulting from comparative research undertaken in collaboration between Nicaraguan and Danish researchers on local participation, plant biodiversity and local knowledge on plants in the management of four Nicaragua protected areas. The research project has been financed as part of the Danish environmental sector support programme to Nicaragua and has been coordinated by Helle Munk Ravnborg at DIIS. The DIIS Report 'Desde declaración hasta protección real. Biodiversidad y participación local en la gestión de cuatro áreas protegidas en Nicaragua' summarizes the main results of the research.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Naturschutz ; Biodiversität ; Partizipation ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-20
    Description: The perception of land tenure security is widespread in Uganda. This is one of the findings from an empirical analysis of the relationship between land tenure form, tenure documentation, economic behaviour and perceived tenure security for different types of land holders in the Amuru, Masaka and Pallisa areas in Uganda undertaken by researchers from DIIS and from Makerere University. This DIIS Working Paper presents the result of this analysis. Land tenure is, however, under transition in Uganda. Despite the widespread perception of security in land tenure, the study finds that land tenure insecurity is associated with the co-existence of different tenure forms rather than with any tenure form in particular and that context and resource endowments of the individual are important constituents of tenure security. Thus, in order to maintain, deepen and widen the currently widespread perception of tenure security, great care is needed in the design and implementation of ongoing policy and institutional interventions with respect to land administration in Uganda. The DIIS Working Paper forms part of a study on Land and Property rights and Economic Behaviour commissioned to DIIS by the Royal Danish Embassy in Uganda. It is informed by a review of the literature on land tenure and economic activities in Uganda and based upon qualitative interviews undertaken with different types of actors in Amuru, Masaka and Pallisa areas and upon a questionnaire survey administered to a total of 1,200 respondents holding access to land in the three areas.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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