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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The first4 seasonal model for the ground-based observations of Saturn's stratosphere predicted that the maximum southern polar temperature (1-mbar level) occurs near the vernal equinox (1980), whereas the maximum insolation occurs at southern solstice (1973). Infrared spectra acquired in 1980 and ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 324 (1986), S. 441-444 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Spectra were obtained on 20, 22, 24 and 26 March 1986 using the University of Arizona high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). The heliocentric distance (R) was -1 AU for all dates while the geocentric distance (A) decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 AU during our investigation. Observations ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Comet Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on UT 21 to 24 Aug. 1989 using the CRSP spectrometer and the 1.3 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The cometary continuum was detected on all nights. The data are very noisy, due to the short observation window and the untried nature of the instrument. Low resolution (0.0227 micron) spectra show the 3.4 micron C-H stretch feature having a contrast of at most a factor of two to the neighboring continuum. High resolution (0.0031 micron) spectra between 3.4 and 3.6 microns show 1 sigma features that might be attributed to the nu 5 band of formaldehyde (H2CO). Similar spectra of the region between 3.2 and 3.4 microns show one 3 sigma line at 3.34 microns, which is as yet unidentified. Although the cometary spectra were more spatially extended than the spectra of standard stars, no extension of the line emission beyond the continuum was observed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Southwest Research Inst., Workshop on Observations of Recent Comets (1990); p 102
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Comprehensive information on the composition and dynamics of the varied planetary atmospheres is summarized. New observations resulted in new demands for supporting laboratory studies. Spectra observed from spacecraft used to interpret planetary atmospheric structure measurements, to aid in greenhouse and cloud physics calculations, and to plan future experiments are discussed. Current findings and new ideas of physicists, chemists, and planetry astronomers relating to the knowledge of the structure of things large and small, of planets and of molecules are summarized.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-2223-VOL-1 , NAS 1.55:2223-VOL-1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The planetary atmospheres are investigated for their chemical composition. Hydrogen, methane, ethylene, acetylene, and ethane were studied. Various spectroscopic investigations were made.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-2223-VOL-2 , NAS 1.55:2223
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 6; p. (6)143-(6)158
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ground-based search for stratospheric 35-ClO was carried out using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer in the solar absorption mode. Lines due to stratospheric HNO3 and tropospheric OCS were detected at about 0.2% absorptance levels, but the expected 0.1% lines of ClO in this same region were not seen. We find that stratospheric ClO is at least a factor of seven less abundant than is indicated by in situ measurements, and we set an upper limit of 2.3x10 to the 13th molecules/sq cm at the 95% confidence level for the integrated vertical column density of ClO. Our results imply that the release of chlorofluorocarbons may be significantly less important for the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3) than is currently thought.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85026 , NAS 1.15:85026
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The possibility of detecting IR molecular line emission from cometary parent molecules is explored. Due to the non-LTE conditions in the inner coma and the large amount of near IR solar flux, IR fluorescence will be a significant source of cometary emission and, in fact, will dominate the grain radiation in a sufficiently high resolution instrument. The detection of this line emission will be difficult due to absorption in the terrestrial atmosphere, but it appears possible to measure cometary H2O emission from airplane altitudes. As IR molecular line emission represents one of the few promising methods of detecting cometary parent molecules directly, further research on this problem should be vigorously pursued.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85067 , NAS 1.15:85067
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A stratospheric ozone absorption line in the 10 microns band was measured and resolved completely, using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer with spectral resolution of 5 MHz (0.000167 cm to -1 power). The vertical concentration profile of stratospheric ozone was obtained through an analytical inversion of the measured spectral line profile. The absolute total column density was 0.34 cm atm with a peak mixing ratio occurring at approximately 24 km. The (7,1,6) to (7,1,7) O3 line center frequency was found to be 1043.1775 + or - 0.00033 cm to toe -1 power, or 430 + or - 10 MHz higher than the P(24) CO2 laser line frequency.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78067
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of infrared heterodyne spectrocopy for the study of planetary atmospheres is discussed. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy provides a convenient and sensitive method for measuring the true intensity profiles of atmospheric spectral lines. Application of radiative transfer theory to measured lineshapes can then permit the study of molecular abundances, temperatures, total pressures, excitation conditions, and dynamics of the regions of line formation. The theory of formation of atmospheric spectral lines and the retrieval of the information contained in these molecular lines is illustrated. Notable successes of such retrievals from infrared heterodyne measurements on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and the Earth are given. A discussion of developments in infrared heterodyne technology is also presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85047 , NASA-TM-85047
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