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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) is designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The IDM is flying on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The sixteen insulator samples include G10 circuit boards, FR4 and PTFE fiberglass circuit boards, FEP Teflon, alumina, and wires with common insulations. The samples are fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrates 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. The IDM results indicate the rate at which insulator pulses occur. Pulsing began on the seventh orbit. The maximum pulse rate occurred near orbit 600 when over 50 pulses occurred. The average pulse rate is approximately two per orbit, but nearly half of the first 600 orbits experienced no pulses. The pulse rate per unit flux of high energy electrons has not changed dramatically over the first ten months in space. These pulse rates are in agreement with laboratory experience on shorter time scales. Several of the samples have never pulsed. IDM pulses are the seeds of larger satellite electrical anomalies. The pulse rates are compared with space radiation intensities, L shell location, and spectral distributions from the radiation spectrometers on CRRES.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (ISSN 0018-9499); 38; 1614-162
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) is designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The characteristics of the instrument are described. The IDM was flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The sixteen insulator samples included G10 circuit boards, FR4 and PTFE fiberglass circuit boards, FEP Teflon, alumina, and wires with common insulations. The samples are fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrates 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. Published data in the literature provides a simple method for determining the flux of penetrating electrons. The pulse rate is compared to the penetrating flux of electrons.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (ISSN 0018-9499); 40; 2; p. 233-241.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) was designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The sixteen insulator samples included twelve planar printed circuit boards and four cables. The samples were fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrated 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. Pulsing began on the seventh orbit, the maximum pulse rate occurred on the seventeenth orbit when 13 pulses occurred, and the pulses slowly diminished to about one per 3 orbits six months later. After 8 months, the radiation belts abruptly increased and the pulse rates attained a new high. These pulse rates were in agreement with laboratory experience on shorter time scales. Several of the samples never pulsed. If the pulses were not confined within IDM, the physical processes could spread to become a full spacecraft anomaly. The IDM results indicate the rate at which small insulator pulses occur. Small pulses are the seeds of larger satellite electrical anomalies. The pulse rates are compared with space radiation intensities, L shell location, and spectral distributions from the radiation spectrometers on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, 5th Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), Volume 2; p 778-784
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2006-01-12
    Description: Results of the flight of the spacecraft charging sounding rocket payload are given. The payload was designed to create charging by the emission of both positive ions and electrons. The relationship between environmental parameters and changes in vehicle potential during periods of emission was also studied.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Res. Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1978; p 80-90
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The dosimeter on board the low altitude polar orbiting DMSP/F7 satellite makes dose and flux measurements for electrons with energies greater than 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 MeV; and for protons with energies greater than 20, 35, 51, and 75 MeV. The characteristics and performance of the dosimeter are illustrated by presenting dose and flux data taken during the solar flare proton events of February 16 and April 26, 1984.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Alabama Univ., Huntsville. STIP Symposium on Physical Interpretation of Solar(Interplanetary and Cometary Intervals; p 5
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The statistical occurrence of spacecraft charging at near-geosynchronous orbit in daylight is studied with reference to results of an experiment conducted on the SCATHA satellite. In particular, it is found that: (1) the external current that creates high negative satellite frame potentials is the high-energy electron current from the electron population with energies greater than about 30 keV; (2) the electron current to the satellite from particles with energies less than about 30 keV neither drives the frame potential nor provides the current to balance the high-energy populations; and (3) the ion current provided from the entire range of measured ions is also not the primary source of the balancing current.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: AD-A165444 , AFGL-TR-86-0057 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 1474-149
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Instruments on the SCEX 3 rocket payload were used to study charging during electron beam emissions. The data show that electrostatic analyzers can be used to measure vehicle charging and direct beam return currents in dense plasma conditions. The data also show return current dependencies on pitch angle, beam current and beam energy. It is found that if the proper care is taken, ESAs can be used to detect charging on vehicles in low altitude orbits which are contaminated with high levels of outgassing and in dense plasma regimes. These results are particularly important for the TSS-1 electrodynamic tether program where ESAs are being used to determine Shuttle charging levels during tether employment and to look for high fluxes of directly returning electrons during electron generator operations to balance the Shuttle charging.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (ISSN 0018-9499); 38; 1622-162
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: On 24 March 1991 instrumentation aboard CRRES observed the almost instantaneous injection of electrons and protons with energies above 15 MeV into the L-region in the range 2-3. The energy spectrum of the injected electrons, a power law (E exp -6) peaked at 15 MeV and continued to at least 50 MeV.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 19; 8 Ap
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Representative satellite materials, to be flown on STP-78-2 in 1979 on the SSPM instruments, were included as part of the AFGL Rocket payload flown from White Sands Missile Range on January 21, 1978. Potentials as high as + 1100 volts on the conductor and + or - 400 volts on the insulator were recorded by the RSPM near the minimum in the electron density vs altitude profile. In addition to the charging potentials measured during ion gun operation, sample charging currents also were recorded with time resolutions near 30 milliseconds. These results demonstrate the validity of the experiment concept of the SSPM on SCATHA.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Res. Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1978; p 91-100
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The nightside particle environment as observed by the AFGL Rapid Scan Particle Detector on SCATHA showing large, sudden simultaneous changes in the fluxes of electrons and protons with energies above 50 keV (dropouts) is considered. An interesting feature of SCATHA dropouts is the quasiperiodic behavior of the particle flux amplitudes which often vary with a period of the order of 15 minutes both during the dropout and after the return. A flux return during eclipse caused a major spacecraft charging event of several kilovolts. The SCATHA observations are compared with those reported for other geosynchronous satellites. In agreement with ATS-5, a marked dependence in the frequency of occurrence due to an effect of the orbit is found. ATS-5 experienced few dropouts during quiet geomagnetic conditions. However, for an L shell greater than seven, SCATHA particle dropouts occur routinely during quiet conditions. Thus, for SCATHA's orbit, both the orbital position and geomagnetic conditions must be taken into account in evaluating the potential hazard of flux returns.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Spacecraft Charging Technol., 1980; p 755-767
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