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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 1442-1455 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect of particulate volume fraction vp and diameter dp on the composite Young's modulus Ec is studied both experimentally, using a silica bead/epoxy system, as well as with the help of computer simulations. The experimental and simulation results show that for a given particulate size, the overall Ec vs vp curve displays a concave upward shape and not a linear shape. This superlinear trend of the data implies that the average strain normalized to the applied strain λ=ε¯p/εc transferred to the particulates increases with volume fraction. The above finding is explained in terms of a mean-field picture, where a single particle interacts with an effective medium consisting of the remaining particles embedded in the matrix. As the modulus of the effective medium surrounding a reference particle increases with vp, the modulus mismatch between the reference particulate and the medium is consequently reduced. This leads to an overall increase in the normalized average strain λ transferred to each particulate as vp is increased. The experimental results using silica particulates with various sizes dp, as well as the simulation results, show that smaller particulates provide an increased composite modulus as compared to larger particulates, at constant vp. General equations are developed, which relate the composite modulus to the average particle stress or strain, given only information about the volume fraction and the Young's modulus of each of the phases present.Through the application of these relations, it is found that smaller particulates display a greater amount of normalized average strain λ transferred than larger particulates. The effect of particulate Young's modulus Ep in combination with particulate size on the resulting Ec is also studied using simulations only. It is found that for a low particulate to matrix modulus ratio Ep/Em, the particulate size has very little influence on Ec. Moreover, the shape of the Ec vs vp curve can be well approximated by a straight line up to large values of vp. On the other hand, as the ratio Ep/Em is increased, the superlinear trend of the composite modulus Ec vs vp data is more apparent. This results in a smaller range of the Ec vs vp curve, which can be approximated by a linear function. It is also found that the extent of this linear region also decreases with particle size.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polypropylene ; spherulite ; cocrystallization ; lamellae ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: During spherulitic crystallization of polymers, there is a tendency for low molecular weight and other less crystallizable entities to be rejected from the body of the spherulites. This rejection process causes a segregation of these species to those areas where spherulites impinge. As a result of this segregation, lamellar and spherulite boundaries have a tendency to become weak, often resulting in premature mechanical failure. The objective of this work, anthropomorphically speaking, is to develop a melt miscible blend system in which a propylene copolymer “fools” a polypropylene homopolymer into rejecting the copolymer to the spherulite boundaries as an impurity. However, once the copolymer arrives at these boundaries, the copolymer subsequently connects adjacent spherulites through cocrystallization of the propylene copolymer segments. It was found that addition of either a random ethylene-propylene copolymer or an isotactic-atactic block copolymer was able to yield the desired effect. Cocrystallization was confirmed by calorimetry, and segregation of copolymer and subsequent reinforcement at the spherulite boundaries was directly observed microscopically. Using this approach, toughness was increased with little loss in stiffness. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2047-2056, 1998
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-01
    Description: :— Formation of microcrystalline quartz formation has proven to be effective at preserving porosity in deeply buried sandstone petroleum reservoirs, typically cemented by syntaxial quartz cement. There remains much uncertainty about what controls the growth of microcrystalline quartz and how it prevents syntaxial quartz overgrowths. Here, the Cretaceous Heidelberg Formation, Germany, provides a natural laboratory to study silica polymorphs and develop an understanding of their crystallography, paragenetic relationships, and growth mechanisms, leading to a new understanding of the growth mechanisms of porosity-preserving microcrystalline quartz. Data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data illustrate that porosity-preserving microcrystalline quartz cement is misoriented with respect to the host grain upon which it grows. In contrast, ordinary quartz cement grows in the same orientation (epitaxially) as the host quartz sand grain, and typically fills pore spaces. EBSD and TEM observations reveal nanofilms of amorphous silica (~ 50–100 nm in thickness) between the microcrystalline quartz and the host grain. The microcrystalline quartz is interpreted to be misoriented relative to the host grain, because the amorphous silica nanofilm prevents growth of epitaxial quartz cement. Instead, the microcrystalline quartz is similar to chalcedony with [11–20] perpendicular to the growth surface and c axes parallel with, but randomly distributed (rotated) on, the host quartz grain surface. Development of pore-filling quartz growing into the pore (in the fast-growing c- axis direction) is thus inhibited due to the amorphous silica nanofilm initially and, subsequently, the misoriented microcrystalline quartz that grew on the amorphous silica.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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