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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: DivIVA from Bacillus subtilis is a bifunctional protein with distinct roles in cell division and sporulation. During vegetative growth, DivIVA regulates the activity of the MinCD complex, thus helping to direct cell division to the correct mid-cell position. DivIVA fulfils a quite different role during sporulation in B. subtilis when it directs the oriC region of the chromosome to the cell pole before asymmetric cell division. DivIVA is a 19.5 kDa protein with a large part of its structure predicted to form a tropomyosin-like α-helical coiled-coil. Here, we present a model for the quaternary structure of DivIVA, based on cryonegative stain transmission electron microscopy images. The purified protein appears as an elongated particle with lateral expansions at both ends producing a form that resembles a ‘doggy-bone’. The particle mass estimated from these images agrees with the value of 145 kDa measured by analytical ultracentrifugation suggesting 6- to 8-mers. These DivIVA oligomers serve as building blocks in the formation of higher order assemblies giving rise to strings, wires and, finally, two-dimensional lattices in a time-dependent manner.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Spo0A, the response regulator protein controlling the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus, has two distinct domains, an N-terminal phosphoacceptor (or receiver) domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding (or effector) domain. The phosphoacceptor domain mediates dimerization of Spo0A on phosphorylation. A comparison of the crystal structures of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated response regulators suggests a mechanism of activation in which structural changes originating at the phosphorylatable aspartate extend to the α4β5α5 surface of the protein. In particular, the data show an important role in downstream signalling for a conserved aromatic residue (Phe-105 in Spo0A), the conformation of which alters upon phosphorylation. In this study, we have prepared a Phe-105 to Ala mutant to probe the contribution of this residue to Spo0A function. We have also made an alanine substitution of the neighbouring residue Tyr-104 that is absolutely conserved in the Spo0As of spore-forming Bacilli. The spo0A(Y104A) and spo0A(F105A) alleles severely impair sporulation in vivo. In vitro phosphorylation of the purified proteins by phosphoramidate is unaffected, but dimerization and DNA binding are abolished by the mutations. We have identified intragenic suppressor mutations of spo0A(F105A) and shown that these second-site mutations in the purified proteins restore phosphorylation-dependent dimer formation. Our data support a model in which dimerization and signal transduction between the two domains of Spo0A are mediated principally by the α4β5α5 signalling surface in the receiver domain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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