Graphene, as a typical two-dimensional nanometer material, has shown its uniqueapplication potential in electrical characteristics, thermal properties, and thermoelectric propertiesby virtue of its novel electronic structure. The field of traditional material modification mainlychanges or enhances certain properties of materials by mixing a variety of materials (to form aheterostructure) and doping. For graphene as well, this paper specifically discusses the use oftraditional modification methods to improve graphene’s electrical and thermoelectrical properties.More deeply, since graphene is an atomic-level thin film material, its shape and edge conformation(zigzag boundary and armchair boundary) have a great impact on performance. Therefore, thispaper reviews the graphene modification field in recent years. Through the change in the shape ofgraphene, the change in the boundary structure configuration, the doping of other atoms, and theformation of a heterostructure, the electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric properties of graphenechange, resulting in broader applications in more fields. Through studies of graphene’s electrical,thermal, and thermoelectric properties in recent years, progress has been made not only inexperimental testing, but also in theoretical calculation. These aspects of graphene are reviewed inthis paper.