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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Finite element stress analysis has been applied to examine the stress patterns in a prosthesis requiring fixation in the medullary shaft of a long bone. No specific prosthesis is considered but rather a generally applicable geometry has been chosen. This consists of a cylindrical section of cortical bone within which is implanted a prosthesis composed of a solid central rod surrounded by a porous coating. The finite element analysis utilized an axisymmetric model to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the system. The effect of changes in length of prosthesis, thickness of porous coating, depth and type of tissue ingrowth, and type of porous coating material were studied under conditions of axisymmetric loading. The results indicate that with complete bone ingrowth, the maximum shear stress and the distance necessary for load transfer are both independent of implant length. However, with incomplete ingrowth, increasing implant length reduces shear. Incomplete growth also produces lower shear stresses but higher shear strains in areas without ingrowth. In addition, a porous polyethylene coating gives a more even load transfer and lower shear than a porous coating of a high modulus material.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Digital control ; Heart rate control ; Isoprenalin ; Microcomputer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cardiovascular changes principally take two forms: (a) inotropic or pressure-related changes, and (b) chronotropic or rate-related changes. Although the two are not mutually exclusive in the biofeedback of a normally functioning animal, this work was concerned principally with affecting the heart rate of a dog by infusing a rate-altering drug. The purpose of this project was to design an external heart-rate control system which consisted of a dog, an infusion pump containing a chronotropic drug and an infusion-pump/heart-rate controller. Input to the system was a target heart rate. The feedback element and the system output was the dog's actual heart rate, ideally being driven to that target heart rate by the controller. A microcomputer-based system was used with proportional derivative control to accommodate the inherent plant delay. Through the use of an inline solid-state relay, on/off control was chosen because of (i) the capability to use any type of infusion pump, and (ii) the simplicity of design due to slow animal response. The experimental results have demonstrated success at overriding the dog's own biological feedback network and driving its heart rate to some artificially chosen target.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The possibility of evaluating the elastic moduli of the bone-porous biomaterial interface by treating it as a two-phase composite is discussed. Methods of placing bounds on the elastic moduli of such a composite are presented and applied to five materials currently being considered for use in porous prosthetic devices: 316 stainless steel, titanium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (Vitallium), alumina (Al2O3), and high density polyethylene. The results show that when the prosthetic material becomes completely ingrown with bone, the elastic modulus of the composite becomes more compatible with bone. Titanium appears to be very favorable. Young's modulus for bulk titanium is about four times that of bone, while the fully ingrown composite has a Young's modulus approximately twice that of bone. Similar results obtain for the other elastic moduli. It is noted that the results for 316 SS apply to all surgical stainless steels, those for Co-Cr-Mo apply to other Co-Cr alloys and those for titanium apply to alloyed titanium.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The concept of tissue ingrowth into porous biomaterials as a means of attaching prostheses to the musculo-skeletal system is reviewed. A compilation of the various ceramic materials studied in vivo to date along with the results of the studies is presented. Results of studies on kinetics of tissue ingrowth into porous biomaterials are summarized. A discussion of the parameters controlling the rate of tissue ingrowth into porous implants is presented.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Porous high-density polyethylene specimens were implanted in the femurs of mongrel canines. At the end of the residency period (3 or 6 months), the animals were sacrificed and the implants were retrieved. The work-of-fracture of the implant specimens was then determined using the technique of Tattersall and Tappin. The work required to fracture a specimen in three-point bending by controlled crack propagation through a triangular cross section was obtained directly from the load-deflection curve. The area of the resulting fracture surface was measured by macro-photographic techniques, and the work-of-fracture was calculated as work per unit area. The implants were subsequently sectioned and examined microradiographically to determine the extent of bone ingrowth. Bone specimens adjacent to the implants and porous high-density polyethylene controls (no ingrowth) were also tested to determine their work-of-fracture. The results showed that bone adjacent to the implant specimens had a higher work-of-fracture than normal medial, canine femoral bone and was not appreciably different from the composite. The work-of-fracture of porous high-density polyethylene was not significantly increased by an increase in bone infiltration, and this anomalous behavior was attributed to a degradation of the polyethylene during implant residence. Control studies supported this hypothesis.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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