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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Surface heating and flow field results for the stagnation region of a planetary exploration vehicle entering the Martian atmosphere are presented. Solutions for the high-energy viscous flow fields with complete radiative heating are derived from a viscous-shock-layer analysis for laminar flow under chemical equilibrium conditions. Results are shown with and without coupled radiation ablation injection utilizing the recently developed curve fits for the transport and thermodynamic properties of Martian atmospheric and ablation species. This analysis includes a strongly absorbing boundary layer and, therefore, gives much lower radiative heat transfer rates than those obtained from inviscid analyses.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1345
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been used to calculate the molecular velocity and energy distributions of molecules striking a surface after traversing a shock layer in hypersonic transitional flow. The calculations were performed for a 1.6-m-diameter sphere at a nominal velocity for re-entry of 7.5 km/s over an altitude range of 130 to 90 km. Real gas effects and chemical reactions were included in the DSMC simulations. Results are presented for these conditions and the need for gas-surface interaction experiments is discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1338
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents the results of calculations obtained with a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method that describes both the external flow about the nose region of the Shuttle Orbiter and the internal flow in an inlet tube that provides the initial path between the shock-processed gases and a mass spectrometer mounted inside the Orbiter. A dedicated, three-dimensional version of the DSMC was developed during this study for the internal flow simulation along with the procedure for interfacing the external and internal flows. The calculations span the 140 to 95 km altitude range, which includes most of the hypersonic transitional flow encountered during reentry. All calculations were for a multicomponent gas mixture consisting of five chemical species while simulating the effects of transitional, rotational, vibrational, and chemical nonequilibrium. The results of the calculations show that within the entry region of the inlet tube where the gas has equilibrated with the sidewall tube temperature, the pressure is substantially less than the pressure at the external surface. This pressure correction for the entry region is significant for all conditions investigated and increases with altitude. The results highlight the structure of both the external and internal flow. Results of parametric studies show the sensitivity of the equilibrated inlet sidewall pressure to mass flow rates, gas-surface reflection model, tube side-wall temperature variations, and surface recombinations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0968
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper presents thermal protection system (TPS) requirements for a potential Titan aerocapture vehicle. Shock-layer solutions are obtained for a nominal trajectory through the current Titan model atmosphere. Fully laminar and fully turbulent solutions are presented along the blunted fore-cone in the windward symmetry plane of a bent-biconic vehicle. Using these solutions to define the aerothermodynamic environment, transient material-response solutions are obtained for a Galileo-type TPS with a carbon-phenolic ablator heat shield. Shock-layer results indicate that turbulent flow is the more realistic flow condition. They also show that the lengthy aerocapture heating pulse is dominated by convective heating. The TPS results show that the required insulation thickness is uniformly about 4 cm along the fore-cone because of the long heat-soak period. The total heat-shield thickness is 6.4 cm at the stagnation point, and 4.7 cm near the end of the fore-cone. These TPS requirements are greater than those presented in a previous Titan aerocapture study.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1714
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Equations have been obtained for jump (or slip) in the wall values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature for the low-Reynolds-number high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. The analysis, based on the Chapman-Enskog method as applied by Shidlovskiy for a single-species gas, includes multicomponent diffusion with finite-rate surface catalytic recombination. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent, binary, and single species mixtures.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets (ISSN 0022-4650); 29; 6; p. 786-793.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Equations are presented for the surface-slip (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low Reynolds number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. These are obtained from closed-form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations by using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent airflow, includes the finite-rare surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various slip quantities have been obtained in a form which can readily be employed in flow-field computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent and binary mixtures and single-species gas. An expression is also provided for the finite-rate species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in the absence of slip.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA-TP-2452 , NAS 1.60:2452 , L-15952
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two flow-field codes employing the time- and space-marching numerical techniques were evaluated. Both methods were used to analyze the flow field around a massively blown Jupiter entry probe under perfect-gas conditions. In order to obtain a direct point-by-point comparison, the computations were made by using identical grids and turbulence models. For the same degree of accuracy, the space-marching scheme takes much less time as compared to the time-marching method and would appear to provide accurate results for the problems with nonequilibrium chemistry, free from the effect of local differences in time on the final solution which is inherent in time-marching methods. With the time-marching method, however, the solutions are obtainable for the realistic entry probe shapes with massive or uniform surface blowing rates; whereas, with the space-marching technique, it is difficult to obtain converged solutions for such flow conditions. The choice of the numerical method is, therefore, problem dependent. Both methods give equally good results for the cases where results are compared with experimental data.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NAS 1.15:84479 , NASA-TM-84479
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA-CR-143204 , TR-75-T9
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Differential equations governing transient response of ablating axisymmetric orthotropic bodies and effect of shape change
    Keywords: THERMODYNAMICS AND COMBUSTION
    Type: NASA-TN-D-6220 , L-7474
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