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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-01
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in [citation], doi:[doi]. Morrow, R., Fu, L., Ardhuin, F., Benkiran, M., Chapron, B., Cosme, E., d'Ovidio, F., Farrar, J. T., Gille, S. T., Lapeyre, G., Le Traon, P., Pascual, A., Ponte, A., Qiu, B., Rascle, N., Ubelmann, C., Wang, J., & Zaron, E. D. Global observations of fine-scale ocean surface topography with the surface water and ocean topography (SWOT) mission. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6(232),(2019), doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00232.
    Description: The future international Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission, planned for launch in 2021, will make high-resolution 2D observations of sea-surface height using SAR radar interferometric techniques. SWOT will map the global and coastal oceans up to 77.6∘ latitude every 21 days over a swath of 120 km (20 km nadir gap). Today’s 2D mapped altimeter data can resolve ocean scales of 150 km wavelength whereas the SWOT measurement will extend our 2D observations down to 15–30 km, depending on sea state. SWOT will offer new opportunities to observe the oceanic dynamic processes at scales that are important in the generation and dissipation of kinetic energy in the ocean, and that facilitate the exchange of energy between the ocean interior and the upper layer. The active vertical exchanges linked to these scales have impacts on the local and global budgets of heat and carbon, and on nutrients for biogeochemical cycles. This review paper highlights the issues being addressed by the SWOT science community to understand SWOT’s very precise sea surface height (SSH)/surface pressure observations, and it explores how SWOT data will be combined with other satellite and in situ data and models to better understand the upper ocean 4D circulation (x, y, z, t) over the next decade. SWOT will provide unprecedented 2D ocean SSH observations down to 15–30 km in wavelength, which encompasses the scales of “balanced” geostrophic eddy motions, high-frequency internal tides and internal waves. This presents both a challenge in reconstructing the 4D upper ocean circulation, or in the assimilation of SSH in models, but also an opportunity to have global observations of the 2D structure of these phenomena, and to learn more about their interactions. At these small scales, ocean dynamics evolve rapidly, and combining SWOT 2D SSH data with other satellite or in situ data with different space-time coverage is also a challenge. SWOT’s new technology will be a forerunner for the future altimetric observing system, and so advancing on these issues today will pave the way for our future.
    Description: The authors were mostly funded through the NASA Physical Oceanography Program and the CNES/TOSCA programs for the SWOT and OSTST Science teams. AnP acknowledges support from the Spanish Research Agency and the European Regional Development Fund (Award No. CTM2016-78607-P). AuP acknowledges support from the ANR EQUINOx (ANR-17-CE01-0006-01).
    Keywords: ocean mesoscale circulation ; satellite altimetry ; SAR-interferometry ; tides and internal tides ; calibration-validation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-11-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in [citation], doi:[doi]. Gommenginger, C., Chapron, B., Hogg, A., Buckingham, C., Fox-Kemper, B., Eriksson, L., Soulat, F., Ubelmann, C., Ocampo-Torres, F., Nardelli, B. B., Griffin, D., Lopez-Dekker, P., Knudsen, P., Andersen, O., Stenseng, L., Stapleton, N., Perrie, W., Violante-Carvalho, N., Schulz-Stellenfleth, J., Woolf, D., Isern-Fontanet, J., Ardhuin, F., Klein, P., Mouche, A., Pascual, A., Capet, X., Hauser, D., Stoffelen, A., Morrow, R., Aouf, L., Breivik, O., Fu, L., Johannessen, J. A., Aksenov, Y., Bricheno, L., Hirschi, J., Martin, A. C. H., Martin, A. P., Nurser, G., Polton, J., Wolf, J., Johnsens, H., Soloviev, A., Jacobs, G. A., Collard, F., Groom, S., Kudryavtsev, V., Wilkin, J., Navarro, V., Babanin, A., Martin, M., Siddorn, J., Saulter, A., Rippeth, T., Emery, B., Maximenko, N., Romeiser, R., Graber, H., Azcarate, A. A., Hughes, C. W., Vandemark, D., da Silva, J., Van Leeuwen, P. J., Naveira-Garabato, A., Gemmrich, J., Mahadevan, A., Marquez, J., Munro, Y., Doody, S., & Burbidge, G. SEASTAR: A mission to study ocean submesoscale dynamics and small-scale atmosphere-ocean processes in coastal, shelf and polar seas. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):457, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00457.
    Description: High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large vertical ocean velocities and mixed layer re-stratification. Small-scale processes particularly dominate in coastal, shelf and polar seas where they mediate important exchanges between land, ocean, atmosphere and the cryosphere, e.g., freshwater, pollutants. As numerical models continue to evolve toward finer spatial resolution and increasingly complex coupled atmosphere-wave-ice-ocean systems, modern observing capability lags behind, unable to deliver the high-resolution synoptic measurements of total currents, wind vectors and waves needed to advance understanding, develop better parameterizations and improve model validations, forecasts and projections. SEASTAR is a satellite mission concept that proposes to directly address this critical observational gap with synoptic two-dimensional imaging of total ocean surface current vectors and wind vectors at 1 km resolution and coincident directional wave spectra. Based on major recent advances in squinted along-track Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry, SEASTAR is an innovative, mature concept with unique demonstrated capabilities, seeking to proceed toward spaceborne implementation within Europe and beyond.
    Description: CG and AM received funding from the United Kingdom Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation SEASTAR+ project (Contract No. RP10G0435A02). PVL was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) CUNDA project 694509 under the European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program.
    Keywords: satellite ; air sea interactions ; upper ocean dynamics ; submesoscale ; coastal ; marginal ice zone ; radar ; along-track interferometry
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-10
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Goni, G. J., Sprintall, J., Bringas, F., Cheng, L., Cirano, M., Dong, S., Domingues, R., Goes, M., Lopez, H., Morrow, R., Rivero, U., Rossby, T., Todd, R. E., Trinanes, J., Zilberman, N., Baringer, M., Boyer, T., Cowley, R., Domingues, C. M., Hutchinson, K., Kramp, M., Mata, M. M., Reseghetti, F., Sun, C., Bhaskar, U., & Volko, D. More than 50 years of successful continuous temperature section measurements by the global expendable bathythermograph network, its integrability, societal benefits, and future. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 452, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00452.
    Description: The first eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs) were deployed in the 1960s in the North Atlantic Ocean. In 1967 XBTs were deployed in operational mode to provide a continuous record of temperature profile data along repeated transects, now known as the Global XBT Network. The current network is designed to monitor ocean circulation and boundary current variability, basin-wide and trans-basin ocean heat transport, and global and regional heat content. The ability of the XBT Network to systematically map the upper ocean thermal field in multiple basins with repeated trans-basin sections at eddy-resolving scales remains unmatched today and cannot be reproduced at present by any other observing platform. Some repeated XBT transects have now been continuously occupied for more than 30 years, providing an unprecedented long-term climate record of temperature, and geostrophic velocity profiles that are used to understand variability in ocean heat content (OHC), sea level change, and meridional ocean heat transport. Here, we present key scientific advances in understanding the changing ocean and climate system supported by XBT observations. Improvement in XBT data quality and its impact on computations, particularly of OHC, are presented. Technology development for probes, launchers, and transmission techniques are also discussed. Finally, we offer new perspectives for the future of the Global XBT Network.
    Description: GG, FB, SD, UR, MB, RD, and DV were supported by a grant from the NOAA/Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division (OOMD) and by NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML). The participation of JS and NZ in this study was supported by NOAA's Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program through Award NA15OAR4320071 and NSF Award 1542902. CD was funded by the Australian Research Council (FT130101532 and DP160103130); the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 148, funded by national SCOR committees and a grant to SCOR from the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant OCE-1546580); and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO/International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IOC/IODE) IQuOD Steering Group. LC was supported by 2016YFC1401800.
    Keywords: expendable bathythermographs ; surface currents ; subsurface currents ; meridional heat transport ; ocean heat content ; sea level ; extreme weather
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We use two years of Geosat altimeter data to calculate the variance in surface velocity at crossover points, where time series of the two components of velocity from ascending and descending groundtracks are available. The absolute velocity cannot be determined accurately from altimetry because ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by the National Research Council's first decadal survey of NASA's Earth science program. This document provides wide-ranging examples of research opportunities in oceanography and land hydrology that would be enabled by the new type of measurement. Additional applications in many other branches of Earth System science ranging from ocean bathymetry to sea ice dynamics are also discussed. Many of the technical issues in making the measurement are discussed as well. Also presented is a preliminary design of the SWOT Mission concept, which is being jointly developed by NASA and CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: JPL-Publ-12-5
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: 20 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium; Sep 24, 2012 - Sep 29, 2012; Venice-Lido; Italy
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The processes that contribute to the flat Sea Surface Height (SSH) wavenumber spectral slopes observed in the tropics by satellite altimetry are examined in the tropical Pacific. The tropical dynamics are first investigated with a 1/12° global model. The equatorial region from 10°N–10°S is dominated by Tropical Instability Waves with a peak of energy at 1000km wavelength, strong anisotropy, and a cascade of energy from 600km down to smaller scales. The off-equatorial regions from 10–20° latitude are characterized by a narrower mesoscale range, typical of mid latitudes. In the tropics, the spectral taper window and segment lengths need to be adjusted to include these larger energetic scales. The equatorial and off-equatorial regions of the 1/12° model have surface kinetic energy spectra consistent with quasi-geostrophic turbulence. The balanced component of the dynamics slightly flatten the EKE spectra, but modeled SSH wavenumber spectra maintain a steep slope that does not match the observed altimetric spectra. A second analysis is based on 1/36° high-frequency regional simulations in the western tropical Pacific, with and without explicit tides, where we find a strong signature of internal waves and internal tides that act to increase the smaller-scale SSH spectral energy power and flattening the SSH wavenumber spectra, in agreement with the altimetric spectra. The coherent M2 baroclinic tide is the dominant signal at ~140km wavelength. At short scales, wavenumber SSH spectra are dominated by incoherent internal tides and internal waves which extend up to 200km in wavelength. These incoherent internal waves impact on space scales observed by today's alongtrack altimetric SSH, and also on the future SWOT 2D swath observations, raising the question of altimetric observability of the shorter mesoscale structures in the tropics.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0806
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0822
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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