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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 108 (1976), S. 227-230 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bacteriophage MX-1 ; Myxococcus virescens ; Myxococcus xanthus ; Restriction ; Modification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. The plating efficiency of bacteriophage MX-1 on Myxococcus xanthus strains A and B and M. virescens V2 were compared. Comparison of strains V2 and A suggest that V2 is restrictive and A is not (restriction coefficient was approximately 8). A derivative of M. virescens V2 (strain V2-9) was obtained by repeated exposure of strain V2 to ultraviolet radiation. Strain V2-9 was also unrestrictive. Strain B is apparently unrestrictive too but analysis of phenotypic changes in phage derived from hosts V2, B and A suggested that some of the host-cell processes differ from orthodox restriction and modification. 2. Cell-free extracts from M. virescens V2 were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and two restriction endonucleases, R. MviV2I and R. MviV2II were identified. Nuclease I was found to hydrolyse coliphage λ DNA at apparently one site only and MX-1 DNA at approximately 10 sites; nuclease II was found to hydrolyse MX-1 DNA at a very large number of sites and its restriction sequence was of comparable frequency with that of R. EcoRII. “Modified MX-1 DNA”, obtained from phage whose last host was M. virescens V2 was hydrolysed by nuclease II but not by nuclease I. The significance of these findings for restriction in myxococci is discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bacteriophage ; Myxococcus ; DNA ; Restriction ; Phage proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Phage-like particles were found in the supernatants of cultures of strains of Myxococcus xanthus, M. virescens and M. fulvus. The largest number of such particles was associated with M. virescens V2. Most of the particles were similar in morphology to the virulent Myxococcus phage, MX-1. 2. Several new phages were isolated from soil and animal droppings. A new phage was isolated from cultures of M. virescens V2. All resembled phage MX-1 in morphology and were related to phage MX-1 serologically. One of these phage, øm, was characterized by fractionation of its proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by analysis of the restriction fragments of its DNA. The very close relatedness with MX-1 was confirmed by these techniques. Phage øm, was found to exist in a state of pseudolysogeny with strains of M. virescens and M. fulvus. 3. Two types of bacteriocin-like activity were found associated with Myxococcus strains. In one case, the activity was extracted from chloroform-killed or from sonicated cells. In the second case it was associated with extracellular material. Strains of Salmonella and Cytophaga were found to be good indicators for this latter activity. These strains were found to be killed by phage MX-1. 4. The significance of these data for origin of the phages of myxococci are discussed and it is proposed that MX-1 and the newly isolated phages may be virulent mutants of a family of lysogenic phages.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bacteriophage MX-1 ; Myxococcus ; DNA ; Restriction fragments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Bacteriophage MX-1 is a virulent DNA phage whose hosts include strains of Myxococcus xanthus, M. fulvus and M. virescens. DNA was extracted from purified phage preparations. The molecular weight of phage DNA was measured by sedimentation-velocity and by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation. The apparent molecular weight was found to vary for reasons discussed in the text. From ratezonal ultracentrifugation, using calibrated sucrose gradients, the molecular weight was calculated to be 149 (± 22)×106 daltons. The base composition of the DNA was estimated by different methods and was found to be 50–52% (G+C). The DNA demonstrated an anomalous thermal denaturation profile in dilute buffer. Denatured DNA was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and by buoyant-density centrifugation. No significant strand separation was obtained and it was concluded that overall base compositions of the two strands are very similar. 2. DNA from bacteriophage MX-1 was hydrolysed with restriction endonucleases R. EcoRI, R. EcoRII and R. HindIII. The restriction fragments were catalogued and their apparent molecular weights calculated from electrophoresis gels calibrated with fragments from the DNA of coliphage λ. From the total fragments obtained with nuclease R. EcoRI, the minimum apparent molecular weight of MX-1 DNA was found to be 130×106 daltons.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bacteriophage K7 ; Tail length ; R factors ; Incompatability group W
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Bacteriophage K7 is specific for Escherichia coli strains harbouring R factors of incompatability group W, including hybrid coliphage P1-Myxococcus virescens plasmids. The phage has an unusual morphology with an isometric head and long tail of variable length. The tail lengths appear to fall into classes corresponsing to simple multimers of a unit length. Partially purified lysates of the phage include material that may represent phage particles in the process of biogenesis and other material demonstrating attachment of phage to cell envelope. Newly released phage DNA contains single standed ends. In the course of work, E. coli strains that harbour R factor Sa were found to be apparently restrictive.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Transposable elements ; Mutation ; Mutator ; Maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mutagenic activity of the maize transposable element system Mutator can be lost by outcrossing to standard, non-Mutator lines or by repetitive intercrossing of genetically diverse Mutator lines. Lines losing Mutator mutagenic activity in either manner retain high copy numbers (10–15 per diploid genome) of the Mutator-associated Mu transposable elements. Frequent transposition of Mu1-related elements is observed only in active Mutator lines, however. The loss of Mutator activity on intercrossing is correlated with an increase in the copy number of Mu1-like elements to 40–50 per diploid genome, implying a self-encoded or self-activated negative regulator of Mu1 transposition. The outcross loss of Mutator activity is only weakly correlated with a low Mu element copy number and may be due to the loss of a positive regulatory factor encoded by a subset of Mu1-like elements. Transposition of Mu elements in active Mutator lines generates multiple new genomic positions for about half the elements each plant generation. The appearance of Mu1-like elements in these new positions is not accompanied by equally high germinal reversion frequencies, suggesting that Mu1 may commonly transpose via a DNA replicative process.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 183 (1959), S. 310-311 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] By spacing the aerials so far apart that the spatial phase-correlation in the diffracted component in the signals at the two aerials is negligible, the ratio of the power in the specular component to that in the diffracted component may be measured. Phase measurements provide a more sensitive ...
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2) is a general purpose language that combines network, discrete event, and continuous modeling capabilities in a single language system. The efficacy of the system's network modeling is examined and discussed. Examples are given of the symbolism that is used, and an example problem and model are derived. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of programming, special features, and system limitations. The system offers many features which allow rapid model development and provides an informative standardized output. The system also has limitations which may cause undetected errors and misleading reports unless the user is aware of these programming characteristics.
    Keywords: COMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND SOFTWARE
    Type: NAS 1.15:84605 , NASA-TM-84605
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: embryogenic cell culture ; maize ; Mutator ; transposable elements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The maize inbred line A188 is popularly used for the production of embryogenic cell lines. A188, maintained at the University of Minnesota, was found upon molecular analysis to contain 2 to 4 copies of a DNA sequence very similar in structure to transposable Mu1 elements, which have been implicated in Robertson's Mutator system. These Mu1-like elements are in the same chromosomal locations in sibling plants and in A188 cell cultures derived from them. This suggests that the elements are in an inactive state and do not undergo transposition. However, we have observed that they are not modified at the target sites for certain restriction endonucleases. Possible causes for the apparent lack of transposition of these Mu1-like elements in these A188 lines are discussed. Inasmuch as the elements do not transpose, they must be maintained in this line as homozygous Mendelian elements by self-pollination.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: ASME PAPER 72-ENAV-19 , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Conference; Aug. 14-16, 1972; San Francisco, CA
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Previous spacecraft heat rejection systems have been tailored to a specific spacecraft and a specific mission. Many different panel designs, fluids, and control methods have been used with no significant degree of commonality. For future spacecraft, it is desirable to have heat rejection systems which can accommodate widely varying loads and have a high degree of commonality to minimize development requirements. A modular radiator system which satisfies this requirement and is adaptable to a variety of future vehicles and missions is described. A test program with two modular panels connected in several flow arrangements, which are representative of candidate shuttle orbiter and other future spacecraft applications, is described.
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: ASME PAPER 72-ENAV-34 , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Conference; Aug. 14-16, 1972; San Francisco, CA
    Format: text
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