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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ultrastructure of Cryptosporidium muris, which parasitizes the stomach of mice, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The entire development of the parasite occurred in the microvilli of the surface mucus cells in the gastric glands. The ultrastructural features of the attachment site of C. muris to the host cell differed remarkably from those of C. parvum and its closely related species, which parasitize the intestine of various animals. The size of C. muris was greater at almost every developmental stage than that of C. parvum. These findings confirmed that C. muris and C. parvum are distinct species. The mitochondria, subpellicular microtubules, and Golgi complex were demonstrated in detail. A small invagination in the meront and intravacuolar tubules were found in Cryptosporidium. The wall of each developing oocyst in the parasitophorous vacuole was composed of three layers: the outermost layer was considered to be a true oocyst wall, whereas the middle and innermost layers were assumed to develop into the sporocyst wall. The outermost layer was fragile and disintegrated as the oocyst matured. In excystation in vitro, a suture was seen in a thick layer of the two-layered sporocyst wall of an oocyst (sporocyst wall; see Discussion) that enveloped four sporozoites. The fine structure of the attachment site of the present species to the host cell appears to reveal a unique mode of hostparasite interaction in Cryptosporidium infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Avian ; Larus ; Growth ; Heart rate ; O2 pulse ; AbbreviationsACG acoustocardiogram ; ECG electrocardiogram ; HR heart rate ; MHR mean heart rate ; Q10 temperature coefficient ; Ta ambient temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the developmental patterns of mean heart rate in Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus embryos and chicks with other avian species of different hatchling developmental modes. We proposed that, since mean heart rate is inversely related to fresh egg mass in all birds, larger species reached a higher fraction of their hatchling mean heart rate by the end of the early phase of incubation and that heart rate contributions to supplying the increasing metabolic demands during mid and late incubation phases were less important than in smaller avian species. Mean heart rate was essentially independent of age throughout the mid-incubation phase (33% of normalised incubation until pipping), but increased with time during early (L. schistisagus only investigated) and late-incubation phases in both species. The O2 pulse of L. schistisagus embryos and chicks increased linearly with yolk-free body mass (log-log) after the early-phase of incubation until shortly before pipping, but was independent of body mass in the periods before and after. We conclude that a high heart rate in this first period is probably more important for increasing the circulation of nutrients to the embryo at a stage when extra-embryonic circulation to the yolk sac is limited by the size of the growing area vaculosa. Furthermore, large increases in mean heart rate during the late-incubation phase are probably important for increasing the cardiac output to hatching levels with onset of endothermy. However, mean heart rate is stable over the mid-incubation while O2 pulse increases, suggesting that increases in stroke volume and other circulatory adjustments may be entirely responsible for the largest increases in O2 transport during incubation of large avian species.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The infectivity ofCryptosporidium muris (strain RN 66), originally isolated from the house rat (Iseki 1986), to various laboratory animals was studied by transmission experiments. After oral inoculation with 1×106 oocysts, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats all discharged endogenously produced oocysts in their feces. Among these host species, mice and cats were highly susceptible to the parasite. The prepatent period for six 3-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice was 5 days postinoculation (PI), the patent periods varied between 34 and 75 days for each mouse, and the number of oocysts discharged per individual per day (OPD) was 11–46×106 at the maximum on days 16–26 PI. The total number of oocysts discharged per mouse during the patent period was estimated to be 170–560×106. Three inoculated cats (1–2 months old) also discharged a large number of oocysts for a long period. Guinea pigs, rabbits, and dogs showed low susceptibility to this strain; the OPD was extremely small and the patent periods were less than 3 weeks. The entire endogenous development of this parasite occurred in the stomach and not in the small and large intestines of these experimental animals. Because of this lack of host specificity, it is suspected thatC. muris could be infective to humans, especially immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International journal of biometeorology 22 (1978), S. 312-315 
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The sex ratio at birth was examined in offsprings of rats reared in 5°C for successive generations. The sex ratio of their offsprings significantly skewed toward females and the litter size markedly reduced, as compared with those of controls reared in 22°C. Continuous administration of norepinephrine for 12 weeks which purports to simulate a cold stress resulted in a reduction of litter size with a tendency of skewness in sex ratio toward females.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Verhältnis von Oelsäure in der freien Fettsäurenfraktion (FFA) im Plasma war bei Japanern (n=9) höher als bei Ainus (n=5). Nach Glukose war das Oelsäure-Verhältnis vermindert, während in beiden Gruppen Stearinsäure anstieg. Bei den Japanern ergaben sich ausserdem ein Abfall der Linolensäure und Austiege der Palmitin- und Myristinsäure. Wenn der Plasma FFA-Spiegel nach Noradrenalin-Injektion anstieg, stieg der Oelsäureanteil und fielen die Palmitin-, Myristin- und Laurinsäureanteile und die Zusammensetzung war wie die von Depotfett. Es wird angenommen, dass die Unterschiede in der Zusammensetzung der Plasma FFA bei Japanern und Ainus Folge der unterschiedlichen FFA-Spiegel waren, die bei den Ainu signifikant tiefer lagen.
    Abstract: Resume La proportion d'acide oleique dans l'ensemble des acides gras libres (FFA) du plasma sanguin est plus marquée chez les Japonais (n=9) que chez les Aïnous (n=5). La proportion d'acide oleique a diminuê après l'administration de glucose, car, dans les deux groupes, la teneur en acide stéarique s'est renforcée. On constante en outre une diminution de l'acide linoleique et une augmentation des acides palmitique et myristique. Lorsque, après injection de noradrénaline, le taux de FFA du plasma se relève, on constate une augmentation des quantités relatives de l'acide oleique au détriment de la part prise par les acides palmitique, myristique et laurique et leur composition est semblable aux dépots adipeux. On peut ainsi admettre que les différences de composition du FFA plasmatique découlent du taux dissemblable du FFA entre Aïnous et Japonais. Ce taux est significativement inférieur chez les premiers.
    Notes: Abstract The ratio of oleic acid in the plasma FFA fraction was higher in the Japanese than in the Ainu. When glucose was administered, the proportion of oleic acid was reduced, while that of stearic acid increased in both groups. In the Japanese, moreover, a decrease in linoleic acid and increases in palmitic and myristic acids were also observed. As the plasma FFA level rose after injection of norepinephrine, the proportion of oleic acid increased and that of palmitic, stearic, myristic and lauric acids decreased, and the composition approached the pattern of depot fat. It was inferred that the difference observed in the plasma FFA composition between the Ainu and Japanese was attributable to the difference in the plasma levels of FFA which was significantly lower in the Ainu.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 13 (1993), S. 412-415 
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0022-3697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 230 (1994), S. 117-120 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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