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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Amphiphilic copolymer ; methotrexate ; methyl orange ; drug binding ; dye binding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The copolymers of methyl quaternized 2-dimethylaminopropyl acrylamide and styrene have been prepared. Studies were made of the binding of an anticancer drug, methotrexate by the copolymers, bovine serum albumin, and polyvinylpyrrolidone in aqueous solution. The first binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters in the course of the binding were evaluated and compared with those of a “binding probe”, methyl orange and its homologs in order to gain insight into the nature of drug binding and to apply the drug-polymer complex to a drug-delivery system. The nature and phenomena of drug binding with the polymers are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: calorimetry ; emissivity ; high temperature specific heat capacity ; thermal radiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Specific heat capacity measurements of disk-shaped specimens have been performed with an apparatus based on thermal radiation calorimetry. The specimen surfaces were irradiated by two fiat heaters in a vacuum chamber so that homogeneous temperature distribution within an insulating specimen was achieved. Homogeneity was confirmed by computer simulation based on the control-volume method. The values of specific heat capacity were obtained by measurement of the specimen temperature, the time rate change of the specimen temperature, and the radiant power from the heater for heating and cooling modes. The specific heat capacities of Ni metal, A12O3 ceramic, MgO ceramic, and A1N ceramic were measured in the temperature range from 220 to 500°C to confirm the validity of this calorimeter. The relative error involved in the measured values was estimated to be ±3%.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: effective emissivity ; specific heat capacity ; thermal radiation calorimetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A novel method for measurement of the specific heat capacity in the temperature range from 150 to 310 K is described. In order to achieve good temperature homogeneity in a disk-shaped specimen, a cylindrical heater was used in an apparatus based on thermal radiation calorimetry. A mixture of Bi2O3 and MgO powders was used for blackening the surfaces of the specimen, the heater, and the inside wall of the chamber. The specific heat capacities of Ni, fused quartz glass, and BaTiO3 ceramic were measured to test the performance of the calorimeter. Agreement to within 5% of the values published in the literature was obtained for these samples. Thermal hysteresis and anomalies associated with the first-order phase transition in BaTiO3 were detected in the present experiment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: calorimetry ; emissivity ; heat capacity ; high temperature ; radiant exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Radiant power exchange for thermal radiation calorimetry was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The geometrical relation in which a disk-shaped copper specimen and a graphite plate are facing each other was used as the model configuration. Surfaces of the specimen and the plate were blackened with colloidal graphite to achieve a high surface emissivity. The radiant power density absorbed by the specimen was calculated by taking into account the geometrical configuration factors and the total emissivity of the blackened surfaces obtained form spectral reflectivity. A value of 0.56±0.01 was obtained for the radiant power exchange coefficient from the theoretical results in the temperature range from 220 to 430°C. The coefficient obtained experimentally by use of a heat capacity measurement was constant with temperature, with a value of 0.54±0.01 within experimental error. No hysteresis in the coefficient was observed for either heating or cooling processes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: calorimetry ; emittance ; fused silica ; hemispherical total emissivity ; refractive index ; spectral emissivity ; thermal conductivity ; virtual mode ; Vycor glass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract An attempt to derive the hemispherical total emissivity from the normal emission spectrum is proposed for Vycor and fused silica glasses. The normal emission spectrum from a clear surface has been measured at steady state in the temperature range from 400 to 750 K. The sample is heated on one metal-backed face by thermal radiation from a heater. Temperatures inside the sample were monitored by thermocouples at two points near the surfaces. Evaluation of the hemispherical total emissivity from the normal emission spectrum is determined by means of Kramers–Krönig analysis and virtual mode equations. Assuming a linear temperature distribution within the sample, the thermal conductivities of silicate glasses were obtained at elevated temperatures. The results are comparable with those obtained by previous investigators. The effect of radiation heat transfer in a sample is also discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: calorimetry ; emissivity ; high temperature ; specific heat capacity ; thermal conductivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Thermal radiation calorimetry has been applied to measure the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of an isolated solid specimen simultaneously. The system, in which a disk-shaped specimen and a flat heater are mounted in a vacuum chamber with the specimen heated on one face by irradiation, is presented. A theoretical formulation of the simultaneous measurement at quasi-steady state is described in detail. Noncontact temperature measurement of both specimen surfaces has been performed using pyrometers and a thermocouple set in the gap between the heater and the specimen. Pyroceram 9609 specimens, whose surfaces were blackened with colloidal graphite, were used in the measurement. The largest error involved in the noncontact temperature measurement is ±2°C in the range from 450 to 650°C. The resultant values of the specific heat capacity and the thermal conductivity deviate by about 10% from the recommended values for the Pyroceram specimen.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The SOLAR-A spacecraft has spectroscopic capabilities in a wide energy band from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The Wide Band Spectrometer (WBS), consisting of three kinds of spectrometers, soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS), hard X-ray spectrometer (HXS) and gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS), is installed on SOLAR-A to investigate plasma heating, high-energy particle acceleration, and interaction processes. SXS has two proportional counters and each counter provides 128-channel pulse height data in the 2–30 keV range every 2 s and 2-channel pulse count data every 0.25 s. HXS has a NaI scintillation detector and provides 32-channel pulse height data in the 20–400 keV range every 1 s and 2-channel pulse count data every 0.125 s. GRS has two identical BGO scintillation detectors and each detector provides 128-channel pulse height data in the 0.2–10 MeV range every 4 s and 4-channel pulse count data (0.2–0.7, 0.7–4, 4–7, and 7–10 MeV) every 0.25–0.5 s. In addition, each of the BGO scintillation detectors provides 16-channel pulse height data in the 8–100 MeV range every 4 s and 2-channel pulse count data (8–30 and 30–100 MeV) every 0.5 s. The SXS observations enable one to study the thermal evolution of flare plasma by obtaining time series of electron temperatures and emission measures of hot plasma; the HXS observations enable one to study the electron acceleration and heating mechanisms by obtaining time series of the electron spectrum; and the GRS observations enable one to study the high-energy electron and ion acceleration and interaction processes by obtaining time series of electron and ion spectra.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon-13 nuclear spin systems have been studied in partially deuterated 1,2-ethanediol (CD2OH)2, doped with paramagnetic Crv complexes, between 0.1 and 0.5 K, using the technique of dynamic polarization. Various steady-state and transient measurements demonstrate the existence of a thermal contact between the different spin species of this sample and the electron spin-spin interaction reservoir. The lowest spin temperature attained was about 1.2 mK in a magnetic field of 25 kG, which corresponds to a proton polarization of 97%, to a deuteron polarization of 40%, and to a carbon-13 polarization of 48%.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Helicity dependence was observed for the resonance of the neutron radiative capture reaction of139La using a polarized neutron beam. The polarized neutron beam was produced by a dynamically polarized proton filter. The neutron polarization was about 70 % throughout the measurement. The preliminary result of the asymmetry in theγ-ray count was (9.5±1.2) %. Experiments were also carried out for98Mo,108Pd and129Xe. Such a large asymmetry as that found in139La was not observed in these nuclei.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The polarization of neutron spin, target nucleus spin and He nuclear spin was developed at KEK for measuring the T-odd term in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target. A method to measure the neutron spin rotation was developed for the T-violation experiment. This apparatus has been found to be quite useful for the P-violating neutron spin rotation experiment. The angular distribution of neutron-capture γ-rays was measured for the study of the enhancement mechanism of the P-violation. The results are also discussed.
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