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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Prostaglandin E2 ; Long-term treatment ; Cancellous bone ; Bone formation ; Bone resorption ; Bone turnover ; Remodeling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The effects of long-term prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE2 produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE2 for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE2 administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] One of the widest ranging abiotic stresses in world agriculture arises from low iron (Fe) availability due to high soil pH, with 30% of arable land too alkaline for optimal crop production. Rice is especially susceptible to low iron supply, whereas other graminaceous crops such as barley are not. A ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the responses of plants to deficiencies of multiple metals, tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were subjected to treatments that were deficient in combinations of Fe and two other micronutrients, Zn and Mn. The response was measured using macro indices, including plant appearance, FW, chlorophyll concentration, and mineral concentrations, and with a molecular index, the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ids2 promoter/GUS fusion gene system (Yoshihara et al. 2003, Plant Biotech 20: 33–41). Tobacco plants grown in medium with combined deficiencies grew better and had higher chlorophyll concentrations than did plants grown on medium deficient in Fe only, although the measured Fe concentrations in the plant tissues were essentially the same. The Ids2/GUS expression responded to Fe deficiency, but not to Mn or Zn deficiencies in tobacco plants when Fe was present. Tobacco plants grown in medium with combined deficiencies had clearly detectable GUS activity, but the response was significantly lower than that in tobacco plants deficient in Fe only. The Fe-deficiency symptoms were mitigated at both the visible and molecular levels. Although more precise experimental evidence is needed to explain the mitigation mechanism, the balance of minerals was shown to be an important parameter to consider when estimating iron deficiency based on tobacco plant responses.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effect of zinc nutritional status on the time course of phytosiderophore release, and uptake of iron and translocation of iron to the shoot, was studied in nutrient solution cultures for two cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum. cv. Aroona: T. durum, cv. Duratit) differing in their susceptibility to zinc deficiency. In the zinc-efficient cultivar Aroona, under zinc deficiency translocation of iron from roots to shoot was significantly decreased in 13- and 15-day-old plants, whereas release of phytosiderophores was enhanced when the plants were 16 days old. As zinc deficiency became more severe in older plains, translocation of iron to the shoot was further decreased and release of phytosiderophores was further enhanced. Resupplying zinc in nutrient solution to zinc-deficient plants significantly increased the translocation of iron to the shoot after 48 and 72 h. Concomitantly the release of phytosiderophores was repressed. The other cultivar Durati classified as zinc-inefficient in field observations differed from cv. Aroona by showing a lower rate of phytosiderophore release under Zinc deficiency, and a less impaired translocation of iron to the shoot. Foliar application of iron citrate to zinc-deficient Aroona plants repressed the release of phytosiderophores and increased iron concentrations in shoot and roots. Application of 55Fe to the leaves demonstrated that retranslocation of iron from the shoot to the roots was not affected by the zinc nutritional status. It is concluded that enhanced release of phytosiderophores in zinc-deficient wheat plants was induced primarily by impaired trans-location of iron lo the shoot.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structure of Zr2Al3C4 was refined by the Rietveld method from conventional X-ray powder diffraction data. The structure was hexagonal (space group P63mc, Z=2) with a=0.334680(6) nm, c=2.22394(3) nm, and V=0.215731(6) nm3, being isomorphous with that of U2Al3C4. The final reliability indices were Rwp=8.57%, Rp=6.06%, and S=1.32. The crystal showed an intergrowth structure with NaCl-type ZrC slabs separated by Al4C3-type Al3C2 layers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Oryza (phloem proteins) ; Phloem sap ; protein ; Sieve tube ; Thioredoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sieve tubes play important roles in the transfer of nutrients as well as signals. Hundreds of proteins were found in pure phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kantou) plants through the cut ends of insect stylets. These proteins may be involved in nutrient transfer and signal transduction. To characterize the nature of these proteins, the partial amino-acid sequence of a 13kDa protein, named RPP13-1, that was abundant in the pure phloem sap was determined. A cDNA clone of 687 bp, containing an open reading frame of 122 amino acids, was isolated using corresponding oligonucleotides as a probe. The deduced amino-acid sequence was very similar to that of the ubiquitous thiol redox protein, thioredoxin. The consensus sequences of thioredoxins are highly conserved. No putative signal peptide was identified. Antiserum against wheat thioredoxin h cross-reacted with RPP13-1 in the phloem sap of rice plants. RPP131 produced in Escherichia coli was reactive to antiserum against wheat thioredoxin h. Both E. coli-produced RPP13-1 and the phloem sap proteins catalyzed the reduction of the disulfide bonds of insulin in the presence of dithiothreitol. These results indicate that an active thioredoxin is a major protein translocating in rice sieve tubes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: chlorosis ; DNA sequence ; Ids2 ; iron deficiency ; MAs ; phytosiderophores
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A λzapII cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from Fe-deficient barley roots and screened with cDNA probes made from mRNA of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient (control) barley roots. Seven clones were selected. Among them a clone having the putative full-length mRNA of dioxygenase as judged by northern hybridization was selected and named Ids2 (iron deficiency-specific clone 2). Using a cDNA fragment as probe, two clones from the genomic library (λEMBL-III) were isolated and one was sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence of Ids2 resembled that of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Ids2 is expressed in the Fe-deficient barley roots but is not in the leaves. The expression is repressed by the availability of Fe. Ids2 was also strongly expressed under Mn deficiency and weakly under Zn deficiency or excess NaCl (0.5%). The upstream 5′-flanking region of Ids2 has a root-specific cis element of the CaMV 35S promoter and a nodule-specific element of leghemoglobin, a metal regulatory element (MRE) and several Cu regulatory elements (UAS) of yeast metallothionein (CUP1).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: barley roots ; Fe-deficiency ; mugineic acid ; nicotianamine synthase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Nicotianamine (NA), the key precursor of the mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs), is synthesized from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The NA synthase was strongly induced by Fe-deficiency treatment, and the activity increased to the maximum level faster than the time of maximum level of MAs secretion and also before the appearance of severest chlorosis. The enzyme was mainly localized in the roots of barley. NA synthase had the optimum pH at 9.0, a molecular weight of about 40,000∼50,000 estimated by gel filtration or about 30,000 by SDS-PAGE. Using hydrophobic chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography, and preparative SDS-PAGE, NA synthase was purified as one band on SDS-PAGE.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Fe deficiency ; graminaceous plants ; Hordeum vulgare ; mugineic acid ; phytosiderophores ; roots
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A cDNA clone, Ids3 (iron deficiency-specific clone 3), was isolated from an Fe-deficient-root cDNA library of Hordeum vulgare. Ids3 encodes a protein of 339 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 37.7 kDa, and its amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with those of plant and fungal 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. One aspartate and two histidine residues for ferrous Fe binding (Asp-211, His-209, His-265) and arginine and serine residues for 2-oxoglutarate binding (Arg-275, Ser-277) are conserved in the predicted amino acid sequence of Ids3. Ids3 expression was rapidly induced by Fe deficiency, and was suppressed by re-supply of Fe. Among eight graminaceous species tested, Ids3 expression was observed only in Fe-deficient roots of H. vulgare and Secale cereale, which not only secrete 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), but also mugineic acid (MA) and 3-epihydroxymugineic acid (epiHMA, H. vulgare), and 3-hydroxymugineic acid (HMA, S. cereale). The Ids3 gene is encoded on the long arm of chromosome 4H of H. vulgare, which also carries the hydroxylase gene that converts DMA to MA. Moreover, the Ids2 gene, which is the plant dioxygenase with the highest homology to Ids3, is encoded on the long arm of chromosome 7H of H. vulgare, which carries the hydroxylase gene that converts MA to epiHMA. The observed expression patterns of the Ids3 and Ids2 genes strongly suggest that IDS3 is an enzyme that hydroxylates the C-2′ positions of DMA and epiHDMA, while IDS2 hydroxylates the C-3 positions of MA and DMA.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Fe-deficiency ; graminaceous plant ; mugineic acids ; phytosiderophore ; nicotianamine synthase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Nicotianamine is an intermediate for the biosynthesis of mugineic acid-family phytosiderophores (MAs) in the Gramineae and a key substance for iron metabolism in dicots. Nicotianamine synthase catalyzes the formation of nicotianamine from S-adenosylmethionine. Nicotianamine synthase activity was induced in barley roots at the 3rd day after withholding Fe supply and declined within one day followmg the supply of Fe3+-epihydroxymugineic acid. The induction of nicotianamine synthase activity by Fe-deficiency was observed also in sorghum, maize, and rye, and the level of nicotianamine synthase activity was highly associated with the MAs secreted among graminaceous plant tested. Therefore, the nicotianamine synthase gene may be a suitable candidate for making a transgenic plant tolerant to Fe-deficiency.
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