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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: chlordiazepoxide ; alcoholic liver disease ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clearance of chlordiazepoxide from the systemic circulation was studied in 20 subjects which included 15 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 5 normal volunteers. The half-life for the appearance of the drug in the systemic circulation was found to increase exponentially with age (r=0.73, P〈0.0005) and was independent of the presence of alcoholic hepatitis. The metabolic clearance of chlordiazepoxide was significantly lower in the patients than in the normal subjects (7.6 compared to 13.8 ml/kg-h, P〈0.005). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between clearance and albumin (r=0.77, P〈0.00005). However, the predictive value of this relationship was shown to be minimal. Multiple regression analysis produced only a slight improvement in the correlation when both albumin and lactate dehydrogenase were used as variables (r=0.83, P〈0.00005). In six of the patients, a second clearance study was conducted three weeks following their initial one. All repeat subjects showed improvement both clinically and as reflected by their laboratory tests for liver injury, but there was not a significant change in their clearance of chlordiazepoxide. Multiple regression analysis of the clearance data on the initial and repeat subjects showed a significant correlation between clearance and the variables age, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (r=0.91, P〈0.0025). This relationship suggests that over a short period of time (where age can be considered constant) changes in albumin and lactate dehydrogenase could be potentially useful in predicting clearance changes in a single individual.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Protein profiles ; Campylobacter pylori ; computer analysis ; electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A total of 21 clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori from Peru and the United Kingdom and two reference strains (from Australia), including the type strain (NCTC 11637T), were characterized by high resolution one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins. The protein patterns contained more than 40 discrete bands and the approximate molecular weights of the major bands were 22, 27, 46, 57, 60, 65 and 93 kD. The total patterns were used as the basis of numerical analysis. Most strains were clustered in four phenons at 91% similarity with the exception of six ungrouped strains. Overall similarity was high with all strains linked in the phenogram at ≥81%. Variation among strains was attributable principally to qualitative and quantitative band differences in the 47 to 56 kD (hypervariable) region of the C. pylori protein profile. From the analysis, ten different electropherotypes (EP-types) were identified. We demonstrated that differences were detectable among isolates from widely separated geographical locations as well as from the same location, although multiple isolates from two Peruvian patients had the same electropherotype. Our results indicate that determination of protein profiles provides the basis of a reproducible method for characterization of C. pylori isolates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-CR-117613 , SID-65-447
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present initial analysis and conclusions from plasma observations made during the reported Mars Dust plume event of March - April 2012. During this period, multiple independent amateur observers detected a localized, high-altitude plume over the Martian dawn terminator [Sanchez-Lavega7 et al., Nature, 2015, doi:10.1038nature14162], the origin of which remains to be explained. We report on in-situ measurements of ionospheric plasma density and solar wind parameters throughout this interval made by Mars Express, obtained over the surface region, but at the opposing terminator. We tentatively conclude that the formation and/or transport of this plume to the altitudes where it was observed could be due in part the result of a large interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) encountering the Martian system. Interestingly, we note that a similar plume detection in May 1997 may also have been associated with a large ICME impact at Mars.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN30869 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 2169-9380) (e-ISSN 2169-9402); 121; 4; 3139-3154
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of auroral hiss obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed. The Jovian auroral hiss was observed near the inner boundary of the warm Io torus and has a low-frequency cutoff caused by propagation near the resonance cone. A simple ray tracing procedure using an offset tilted dipole of the Jovian magnetic field is used to determine possible source locations. The results obtained are consistent with two sources located symmetrically with respect to the centrifugal equator along an L shell (L approximately = 5.59) that is coincident with the boundary between the hot and cold regions of the Io torus and is located just inward of the ribbon feature observed from Earth. The distance of the sources from the centrifugal equator is approximately 0.58 +/- 0.01 R(sub J). Based on the similarity to terrestrial auroral hiss, the Jovian is auroral hiss is believed to be generated by beams of low energy (approximately tens to thousands of eV) electrons. The low-frequency cutoff of the auroral hiss suggests that the electrons are accelerated near the inferred source region, possibly by parallel electric fields similar to those existing in the terrestrial auroral regions. A field-aligned current is inferred to exist at L shells just inward of the plasma ribbon. A possible mechanism for driving this current is discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A11; p. 21,213-21,224
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present Polar plasma wave data during cusp energetic particle (CEP) events at 6-9 R(sub E). These data suggest the presence of coherent electrostatic structures that are highly localized and that have typical velocities on the order of hundreds to thousands of kilometers per second along the ambient magnetic field. Some of the wave signatures are solitary waves and some are wave packets. The Polar wave instrument also provides evidence that some of the bursts of electromagnetic waves (with frequencies of a few hundred Hz and just below the electron cyclotron frequency around 800 Hz to 1-2 kHz) that are observed are coher&nt and propagating both up and down the field lines. Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are often detected but their duration is usually short (less than 1 second). Low Frequency (less than 1 kHz), broadband, bursty electromagnetic waves are also present. The Polar wave data results are used to obtain a better understanding of the macro/microphysics during a CEP event that takes place on September 11, 1996, by correlating various Polar (approximately 7.0 R(sub E)) and Akebono (approximately 1.4 R(sub E)) data while both spacecraft are in or near the cusp/cleft region and nearly on the same field line, and magnetometer data from the Canadian Intermagnet and Canopus ground stations, which lie near the base of the magnetic footprint passing through Polar. Solar wind and magnetic field data from the interplanetary medium and magnetosheath are provided by the Geotail and IMP-8 satellites, respectively. Some of the cusp waves may be indicators of the reconnection process taking place through the cusp, the result of mixing of magnetosheath with magnetospheric plasma, and the consequence of an anisotropic electron population in a depressed magnetic field. The low frequency electromagnetic waves are still under study to determine their role, if any, in the heating and acceleration of the MeV He ions during CEP events.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 24; 1; 23-33
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Auroral hiss is observed to propagate over distances comparable to an Earth radius from its source in the auroral oval. The role of Landau damping is investigated for upward propagating auroral hiss. By using a ray tracing code and a simplified model of the distribution function, the effect of Landau damping is calculated for auroral hiss propagation through the environment around the auroral oval. Landau damping is found to be the likely mechanism for explaining some of the one-sided auroral hiss funnels observed by Dynamics Explorer 1. It is also found that Landau damping puts a lower limit on the wavelength of auroral hiss. Poleward of the auroral oval, Landau damping is found in a typical case to limit omega/k(sub parallel) to values of 3.4 x 10(exp 4) km/s or greater, corresponding to resonance energies of 3.2 keV or greater and wavelengths of 2 km or greater. For equatorward propagation, omega/k(sub parallel) is limited to values greater than 6.8 x 10(exp 4) km/s, corresponding to resonance energies greater than 13 keV and wavelengths greater than 3 km. Independent estimates based on measured ratios of the magnetic to electric field intensity also show that omega/k(sub parallel) corresponds to resonance energies greater than 1 keV and wavelengths greater than 1 km. These results lead to the difficulty that upgoing electron beams sufficiently energetic to directly generate auroral hiss of the inferred wavelength are not usually observed. A partial transmission mechanism utilizing density discontinuities oblique to the magnetic field is proposed for converting auroral hiss to wavelengths long enough to avoid damping of the wave over long distances. Numerous reflections of the wave in an upwardly flared density cavity could convert waves to significantly increased wavelengths and resonance velocities.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A2; p. 2471-2488
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: We investigate the possibility of perpendicular heating of electrons and the generation of '90 deg -electron conics' by particle diffusion in velocity space due to wave-particle interaction with intense auroral kilometric radiation. This interaction is made possible by the downward shift in the R-X cutoff below the electron cyclotron frequency that occurs in the presence of warm plasma. We stimulate this condition and solve the diffusion equation using a finite difference algorithm. The results show strong perpendicular electron heating and indicate that the main characteristics of an electron conic distribution can be reproduced under these conditions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-198815 , NAS 1.26:198815
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We present a detailed study of the highest-frequency component of smooth radio emission observed during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune in August 1989. This emission occurs during three distinct periods on August 24 and 25, 1989, in the frequency range of 550 to 900 kHz. By assuming straight-line propagation from sources of both fundamental and second harmonic gyroemission, we perform a detailed analysis of the observed polarization of the emission. The data are most consistent with an L-O mode source in the north magnetic polar region, around 50 deg W, 50 deg N. A second possible source is in the north magnetic polar region, around 270 deg W, 50 deg N. This source must emit in the R-X mode.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5567-5578
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-08-22
    Description: Nature Materials 13, 879 (2014). doi:10.1038/nmat4039 Authors: J. H. Lee, G. Luo, I. C. Tung, S. H. Chang, Z. Luo, M. Malshe, M. Gadre, A. Bhattacharya, S. M. Nakhmanson, J. A. Eastman, H. Hong, J. Jellinek, D. Morgan, D. D. Fong & J. W. Freeland
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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