Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
The optically active macrotricyclic cryptands 1 and 2, containing the binaphthyl group as chiral unit, have been synthesized. These compounds contain lateral cavities which may serve as anchoring sites for polar groups of the substrates and a central, chiral cavity large enough for including more or les completely the bulk of a molecular ion. Their complexation properties towards molecular ions give evidence for the occurrence of two types of processes: (a) direct complexation of primary ammonium cations, like phenylethyl ammonium chloride, occurs with either 1 or 2; (b) cascade binding, involving first complexation of an alkali cation followed by pairing with a molecular anion, takes place with 2. Process (b) may be considered as a metallo-receptor model system where binding of an anionic substrate is dependent on initial binding of a cation. In both cases (a) and (b) weak resolution of chiral racemic substrates has been observed by extraction and transport (through a bulk liquid membrane) experiments. This indicates that in the complex the bulk of the substrate should be located close to the chiral unit and therefore more or less in the central cavity. In the case of cryptand 2, the resolution achieved for the (±)-mandelate anion is markedly affected by the nature of the complexed cation.
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