D-3-glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract A series of amphiphilic polymethylenecarboxymaleimides has been synthesized for use as sulfhydryl reagents applicable to membrane proteins. Physical properties of the compounds which are relevant to their proposed mode of action have been determined. By comparing rates of reaction in aqueous and aprotic solvents, the compounds have been shown to react exclusively with the thiolate ion. The effects of the reagents on three membrane-associated proteins are reported, and in two cases a comparative study has been made of the effects on the proteins in the absence of membranes. A mechanism is proposed whereby the reagents are anchored at the lipid/water interface by the negatively charged carboxyl group, thus siting the reactive maleimide in a plane whose depth is defined by the length of the reagent. Supporting evidence for this model is provided by the inability of the reagents to traverse membranes, and variation of their inhibitory potency with chain length when the proteins are embedded in the membrane, but not when extracted into solution. As examples of general use of the reagents to probe sulfhydryl groups in membrane proteins, the reagents have been used to (a) determine the depths in the membrane at which two populations of sulfhydryl groups occur in the mitochondrial phosphate transporter; (b) locate a single sulfhydryl associated with the active site ofD-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane; (c) examine sulfhydryl groups in theD-3-glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase associated with the human red blood cell membrane.
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