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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract.  Standard ocean/climate indices such as the Niño-3 sea surface temperature (SST) index, based on sparse instrumental data, and atmospheric indices such as the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), may now be substituted and/or extended by coral-based indices. Several elements or their isotopes are incorporated in coral aragonitic skeletons at predictable concentrations, some of which are temperature or salinity dependent. The availability of century-old corals, at key oceanographic sites, permits the establishment of a network of proxy climate indices.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The second-generation polysulfone (PSU) gas-separation membrane is seen as a trilayer that is considerably more permeable and at least as selective as the first-generation bilayer that it has replaced. In air separation, a fourfold increase in oxygen permeabiliy has been obtained with no loss in oxygen/nitrogen selectivity. The enhanced performance is the result of a membrane skin that is not only thinner, but also exhibits increased free volume and a graded density. The key to the emergency of the trilayer morphology was the discovery of a hitherto unsuspected relationship between the size of solvent molecules within a sol and the free volume and permeability in the resultant gel! Solvent molecules with a molar volume V 〉 ˜ 147 cc/mol function as transient templates (spacers) that decrease macromolecular packing density. As a practical matter, the low diffusivity (difficult extractibility) of large solvent molecules is circumvented by the use of 1:1 Lewis acid: base (A:B) complexes such as propionic acid: N-methyl pyrrolidone instead of neat solvents. Complexes whose acid and base strengths, respectively, lie between (Gutmann 47 〈 AN 〈 53 and 27 〈 DN 〈 28) are sufficiently stable to function as templates, while at the same time exhibiting the hydrolytic instability that leads to their ready disassociation and extraction by water. Selectivity is maintained by the use of A:B complexes whose Hildebrand solubility parameters differ from that of PSU by less than ˜ 1.3 (cal/cc)½. The emergence of the trilayer membrane is considered to be the second decoupling of permeability from selectivity. By the formation of an anisotropic (graded density) skin, permeability has been increased and selectivity maintained. This is analogous to the first decoupling by Loeb and Sourirajan who essentially replaced a thick dense monolayer film with a bilayer consisting of a thin skin of uniform density in series with a thick porous substructure.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: All integrally skinned asymmetric membranes contain some defects which are attributable to the incomplete coalescence of the nodule aggregates of which the skin layer is composed. When such defects are small in size and few in number, they can be effectively sealed by coating with a highly permeable polymer. The resulting composite then exhibits the selectivity to gas permeation which is characteristic of the base polymer. Prior to their sealing, therefore, such membranes can be said to exhibit the potential for intrinsic selectivity. However, not all gas separation membranes can be effectively sealed. In the present study the relationship between sol properties, the presence of macrovoids in the substructure of the gel, and the subsequent failure of the fibers to achieve the potential for intrinsic selectivity are considered. Macrovoid-free fibers with the potential for intrinsic selectivity can be prepared by the utilization of high viscosity, high total solids sols with low nonsolvent tolerance whose solvent vehicles consist of appropriate Lewis acid: base complexes.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the surface structure and morphology of 10,000, 30,000, and 100,000 dalton molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes, and the results are compared. Although both approaches reveal the pore structure in the 30,000 and 100,000 MWCO membranes, the pore diameters derived from SEM are smaller than those measured by AFM. This discrepancy is a result of the diminution in pore dimensions during the sample preparation for SEM, that is, the solvent exchange procedure needed to remove the water from the membrane prior to the high vacuum gold coating deposition step. In contrast to SEM, which requires a high vacuum both during heavy metal coating and during examination, AFM can be performed on wet ultrafiltration membranes. Consequently, the potential of altering the membranes' pore structures during sample preparation is eliminated. Therefore, the pore diameters obtained from AFM are more accurate than those derived from SEM.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The surface topography and pore structure of ultrafiltration membranes can be investigated with atomic force microscopy. In this study, it was found that the substitution of ethanol for water as the immersion medium improved the resolution of the fine structure of 10K polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes. Pores in the membrane surface from 7 to 9 nm in diameter were measured, which coincides with the range expected for 10,000 molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) ultrafiltration membranes. It is believed that this image enhancement results from increased damping and concomitant noise reduction resulting from the higher viscosity of ethanol in contrast to water.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Climate change mediated drying of boreal peatlands is expected to enhance peatland afforestation and wildfire vulnerability. The water table depth–afforestation feedback represents a positive feedback that can enhance peat drying and consolidation and thereby increase peat burn severity; exacerbating the challenges and costs of wildfire suppression efforts and potentially shifting the peatland to a persistent source of atmospheric carbon. To address this wildfire management challenge, we examined burn severity across a gradient of drying in a black spruce dominated peatland that was partially drained in 1975−1980 and burned in the 2016 Fort McMurray Horse River wildfire. We found that post-drainage black spruce annual ring width increased substantially with intense drainage. Average (±SD) basal diameter was 2.6 ± 1.2 cm, 3.2 ± 2.0 cm and 7.9 ± 4.7 cm in undrained (UD), moderately drained (MD) and heavily drained (HD) treatments, respectively. Depth of burn was significantly diff...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-11-16
    Description: The physical and biological processes controlling surface mixed layer pCO2 and O2 were evaluated using in situ sensors mounted on a Lagrangian drifter deployed in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (∼50°S, ∼37°W) during the austral fall of 2008. The drifter was deployed three times during different phases of the study. The surface ocean pCO2 was always less than atmospheric pCO2 (−50.4 to −76.1 μatm), and the ocean was a net sink for CO2 with fluxes averaging between 16.2 and 17.8 mmol C m−2 d−1. Vertical entrainment was the dominant process controlling mixed layer CO2, with fluxes that were 1.8 to 2.2 times greater than the gas exchange fluxes during the first two drifter deployments, and was 1.7 times greater during the third deployment. In contrast, during the first two deployments the surface mixed layer was always a source of O2 to the atmosphere, and air-sea gas exchange was the dominant process occurring, with fluxes that were 2.0 to 4.1 times greater than the vertical entrainment flux. During the third deployment O2 was near saturation the entire deployment and was a small source of O2 to the atmosphere. Net community production (NCP) was low during this study, with mean fluxes of 3.2 to 6.4 mmol C m−2 d−1 during the first deployment and nondetectable (within uncertainty) in the third. During the second deployment the NCP was not separable from lateral advection. Overall, this study indicates that in the early fall the area is a significant sink for atmospheric CO2.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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