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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-0629
    Keywords: Key words: biosphere metabolism; carbon cycle; carbon fluxes; global change; terrestrial ecosystems.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: ABSTRACT Understanding terrestrial carbon metabolism is critical because terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, humans have severely disrupted the carbon cycle in ways that will alter the climate system and directly affect terrestrial metabolism. Changes in terrestrial metabolism may well be as important an indicator of global change as the changing temperature signal. Improving our understanding of the carbon cycle at various spatial and temporal scales will require the integration of multiple, complementary and independent methods that are used by different research communities. Tools such as air sampling networks, inverse numerical methods, and satellite data (top-down approaches) allow us to study the strength and location of the global- and continental-scale carbon sources and sinks. Bottom-up studies provide estimates of carbon fluxes at finer spatial scales and examine the mechanisms that control fluxes at the ecosystem, landscape, and regional scales. Bottom-up approaches include comparative and process studies (for example, ecosystem manipulative experiments) that provide the necessary mechanistic information to develop and validate terrestrial biospheric models. An iteration and reiteration of top-down and bottom-up approaches will be necessary to help constrain measurements at various scales. We propose a major international effort to coordinate and lead research programs of global scope of the carbon cycle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 48 (1956), S. 336-338 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ...Since the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, biodiversity has received increasing attention from scientists, governments and the public worldwide. There is growing recognition that the diversity of life on Earth, including the variety of genes, species and ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rates of emission of H2S were measured for 10-week-old soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merr. cvs. Kent, Peking and York) raised in growth cabinets. Days were 12 h long, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was about 600 mE m-2 s-1, humidity was 50-60% and the temperature was 15 C at night and ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A field portable, steady-state gas-exchange system which measures both CO2 and water vapour exchange of single intact leaves during fumigations with SO2 is described.Within the leaf cuvette temperature, light, humidity and both CO2 and SO2 concentrations are controlled to preset levels. Gas flow and concentrations are controlled by mass flow controllers. Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 can be determined either by differential depletion or null balance measurement. Water vapour exchange is measured differentially and transpiration and conductance to water vapour determined. Sulphur dioxide is measured directly within the cuvette exhaust gas line by UV-pulse fluorescence.The performance of this system under field conditions is described and the physiological measurements compared with those obtained with other systems.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 18 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Increased atmospheric CO2 often but not always leads to large decreases in leaf conductance. Decreased leaf conductance has important implications for a number of components of CO2 responses, from the plant to the global scale. All of the factors that are sensitive to a change in soil moisture, either amount or timing, may be affected by increased CO2. The list of potentially sensitive processes includes soil evaporation, run-off, decomposition, and physiological adjustments of plants, as well as factors such as canopy development and the composition of the plant and microbial communities. Experimental evidence concerning ecosystem-scale consequences of the effects of CO2 on water use is only beginning to accumulate, but the initial indication is that, in water-limited areas, the effects of CO2-induced changes in leaf conductance are comparable in importance to those of CO,2-induced changes in photosynthesis.Above the leaf scale, a number of processes interact to modulate the response of canopy or regional evapotran-spiration to increased CO2. While some components of these processes tend to amplify the sensitivity of evapo-transpiration to altered leaf conductance, the most likely overall pattern is one in which the responses of canopy and regional evapotranspiration are substantially smaller than the responses of canopy conductance. The effects of increased CO2 on canopy evapotranspiration are likely to be smallest in aerodynamically smooth canopies with high leaf conductances. Under these circumstances, which are largely restricted to agriculture, decreases in evapotranspiration may be only one-fourth as large as decreases in canopy conductance.Decreased canopy conductances over large regions may lead to altered climate, including increased temperature and decreased precipitation. The simulation experiments to date predict small effects globally, but these could be important regionally, especially in combination with radiative (greenhouse) effects of increased CO2.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 1 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. A comparison between two sympatric winter desert annuals, Camissonia claviformis and Malvastrum rotundi folium showed that both gained similar amounts of carbon during a spring day, although by very different means. Camissonia has horizontally fixed leaves which have a very high photosynthetic capacity. The temperature optimum of photosynthesis for this species is near 20°C. Malvastrum has leaves with a lower photosynthetic capacity and a photosynthetic temperature optimum near 30°C. Leaves of the latter species remain normal to the sun throughout the course of the day. The tracking response and high temperature optimum for photosynthesis of Malvastrum result in a high daily carbon gain and also a high water-use efficiency.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth-chamber cultivated Raphanus plants accumulate nitrate during their vegetative growth. After 25 days of growth at a constant supply to the roots of 1 mol m−3 (NO−3) in a balanced nutrient solution, the oldest leaves (eight-leaf stage) accumulated 2.5% NO−3-nitrogen (NO3-N) in their lamina, and almost 5% NO3-N in their petioles on a dry weight basis. This is equivalent to approximately 190 and 400 mol−3 m−3 concentration of NO−3 in the lamina and the petiole, respectively, as calculated on a total tissue water content basis. Measurements were made of root NO−3 uptake, NO−3 fluxes in the xylem, nitrate uptake by the mesophyll cells, and nitrate reduction as measured by an in vivo test. NO−3 uptake by roots and mesophyll cells was greater in the light than in the dark. The NO−3 concentration in the xylem fluid was constant with leaf age, but showed a distinct daily variation as a result of the independent fluxes of root uptake, transpiration and mesophyll uptake. NO−3 was reduced in the leaf at a higher rate in the light than in the dark. The reduction was inhibited at the high concentrations calculated to exist in the mesophyll vacuoles, but reduction continued at a low rate, even when there was no supply from the incubation medium. Sixty-four per cent of the NO−3 influx was turned into organic nitrogen, with the remaining NO−3 accumulating in both the light and the dark.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 5 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The apparatus described here is a fully portable, steady-state gas exchange system for simultaneous measurements of the CO2 exchange and transpiration of single, attached leaves. The leaf cuvette provides temperature, humidity, and CO2-concentration control. The system is suitable for either surveys or detailed studies of photosynthetic and stomatal responses to environmental variables. Representative data demonstrate the response time characteristics of the system and constitute the first field evidence of stomatal behaviour consistent with a recent hypothesis concerning the optimum pattern of stomatal conductance for the maximization of water-use-efficiency.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: At elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]a), photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and root fraction (ηR, the ratio of root to plant dry mass) increased in some studies and decreased in others. Here, we have explored possible causes of this, focusing on the relative magnitudes of the effects of elevated [CO2]a on specific leaf (nm) and plant (np) nitrogen concentrations, leaf mass per unit area (h), and plant nitrogen productivity (α). In our survey of 39 studies with 35 species, we found that elevated [CO2]a led to decreased nm and np in all the studies and to increased h and α in most of the studies. The magnitudes of these changes varied with species and with experimental conditions.Based on a model that integrated [CO2]a-induced changes in leaf nitrogen into a biochemically based model of leaf photosynthesis, we predicted that, to a first approximation, photosynthesis will be upregulated (Amax will increase) when growth at increased [CO2]a leads to increases in h that are larger than decreases in nm. Photosynthesis will be downregulated (Amax will decrease) when increases in h are smaller than decreases in nm. The model suggests that photosynthetic capacity increases at elevated [CO2]a only when additional leaf mesophyll more than compensates the effects of nitrogen dilution.We considered two kinds of regulatory paradigms that could lead to varying responses of ηR to elevated [CO2]a, and compared the predictions of each with the data. A simple static model based on the functional balance concept predicts that ηR should increase when neither np nor h is very responsive to elevated [CO2]a. The quantitative and qualitative agreement of the predictions with data from the literature, however, is poor. A model that predicts ηR from the relative sensitivities of photosynthesis and relative growth rate to elevated [CO2]a corresponds much more closely to the observations. In general, root fraction increases if the response of photosynthesis to [CO2]a is greater than that of relative growth rate.
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