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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disease characterized by hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, are thought to be predisposed to malignancies of the digestive tract, genital tract, and other organs. Using microsatellite markers on chromosome 19p, we have closely defined the region containing the gene responsible for this disorder through linkage analysis in seven affected families. The lack of obligate recombinants at two of these loci, D19S883 and D19S878, with maximum LOD scores of 2.88 and 3.75, confirmed the localization of the PJS locus to chromosome 19. Furthermore, haplotype analysis placed the PJS locus within a 6-cM telomeric region of chromosome 19p, between D19S886 and D19S565.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by hamartomatous polyposis involving the entire bowel. Recently STK11, a gene bearing a mutation responsible for PJS, was isolated. We investigated the entire coding region of STK11 in 15 unrelated PJS families by the PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism) method and PCR-direct sequence analysis, and found nine different, novel mutations among ten of those families. One nonsense mutation and five different frameshift mutations (two families carried the same mutation), all of which would cause truncation of the gene product, were found in seven families; mutations found in five families were clustered within exon 6. Among these five mutations, three occurred at the mononucleotide-repeat region (CCCCCC) of codons 279–281, suggesting that this region is likely to be a mutational hotspot of this gene. One of the remaining three families carried a 3-bp in-frame deletion that would eliminate an asparagine residue within a kinase domain of the product; the other two carried intronic mutations at or adjacent to the consensus dinucleotide sequences of splice-acceptor or -donor sites, which were likely to lead to aberrant splicing.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-232X
    Keywords: Key words Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) ; Mismatch repair genehMSH2 ; Multiple primary cancers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We screened for germline mutations of mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in five Japanese families carrying hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and in a patient with multiple primary cancers. Screening the entire coding regions of both genes using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, we found two novel germline mutations in hMSH2. One was a 1-bp insertion in exon 12, detected in a patient who had undergone surgery six times for independent tumors (four primary colorectal carcinomas, a small intestinal carcinoma, and an endometrial cancer). The other, in a second patient, was a missense mutation from CTT to TTT at codon 390 in exon 7 that resulted in substitution of phenylalanine for leucine. This conservative alteration was not found in any of 50 normal controls, but we cannot exclude the possibility that it may represent a rare polymorphism rather than a factor in the disease.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: shear stress ; homotypic aggregation ; LFA-1 ; ICAM-3 ; NiCl2 sensitive Ca2+ channel ; Ca2+ influx ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We found that human neutrophils undergo homotypic aggregation by loading the physiological range of fluid shear stress (12-30 dynes/cm2). Under the fluid shear stress, an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration of neutrophils was observed. This increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration was caused by Ca2+ influx, and the blockage of the flux by NiCl2 suppressed the neutrophil homotypic aggregation. Furthermore, this neutrophil aggregation under fluid shear stress was completely inhibited by pretreatment with antibody against LFA-1 or ICAM-3. These results suggested that NiCl2-sensitive Ca2+ channel played an important role in LFA-1/ICAM-3-mediated neutrophil homotypic aggregation under fluid shear stress. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: platelets ; morphological change ; [Ca2+]i ; confocal laser scanning microscopy ; surface contact activation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic change of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and morphological change were investigated simultaneously by confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-3 and by differential interference contrast optics in platelets activated by contact with the following types of surfaces: native glass and glass treated with poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibrinogen (Fg), or von Willebrand factor (vWF). The initial [Ca2+]i values just after the surface contact were comparable (approximately 100 nM) among platelets deposited on the four surface types. On the PLL-surface, no morphological change or [Ca2+]i elevation was observed. Glass-, Fg-, and vWF-surface adhered platelets showed pseudopod formation and spreading associated with the inhomogeneous [Ca2+]i rise. The platelets on the Fg-surface were the most active in terms of [Ca2+]i rise and morphological change. During pseudopod formation, the mean [Ca2+]i value was maximal and localized high [Ca2+]i zones were observed inside pseudopods, as well as in the center of the platelets. After spreading, high [Ca2+]i zones still remained in the center of the cell. This new technique enabled simultaneous observation of [Ca2+]i and cell shape and we clearly demonstrated a close relationship between [Ca2+]i and morphological alterations. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: shear stress ; actin polymerization ; LFA-1 ; ICAM-3 ; homotypic aggregation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously reported that a physiological range of shear stress induces neutrophil homotypic aggregation mediated by lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) interactions. To further characterize the homotypic aggregation, actin polymerization was investigated in neutrophils stimulated by shear stress in comparison with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). In fMLP-stimulated neutrophils, actin polymerization was localized in the pseudopods, and this reaction was not mediated by a cytosolic level of Ca2+. In contrast to fMLP stimulation, the actin polymerization induced by shear stress in a cone-plate viscometer was localized in cell-cell contact regions, and this polymerization required the increase of intracellular Ca2+. This shear stress-induced actin polymerization was not observed when neutrophils were pretreated with anti-LFA-1 or anti-ICAM-3 antibody. In conclusion, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 interaction mediated by the increase of [Ca2+]i generated the intercellular signal in order to accumulate F-actin in the cell-cell contact regions. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: fluid shear stress ; adrenomedullin ; endothelial cell ; SSRE ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Vascular endothelial cells are potent modulators of vascular tone in response to shear stress. Levels of vasoactive peptides such as adrenomedullin (AM), endothelin-1 (ET-1), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and nitric oxide (NO) are affected by fluid shear stress. AM, a potent vasodilator and suppressor of smooth muscle cell proliferation, contains the shear stress responsive element (SSRE) “GAGACC” in its promoter region. To examine the role of AM in the shear stress response, cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were exposed to fluid shear stresses of 12 and 24 dynes/cm2 in a cone-plate shear stress loading apparatus for various time periods, and the levels of AM gene expression and peptide secretion from HAoECs were measured by Northern blotting analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively. Both AM gene transcription and AM peptide levels were down-regulated by fluid shear stress in a time- and magnitude-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the normal level of arterial shear stress down-regulates AM expression in HAoECs, suggesting that AM participates in the modulation of vascular tone by fluid shear stress. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:109-115, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: calcyculin A ; protein phosphatase ; cytoskeleton ; endothelial cell ; immunocytochemsitry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins regulate the shape of eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP) in this process, we studied the effect of calyculin A (CLA), a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP-1) and 2A (PP-2A) on the cytoskeletal structure of cultured human umbilical vien endothelial cells (HUVECs). The addition of CLA (5 min) caused marked alterations in cell morphology, such as cell constriction and bleb formation. Microtubules and F-actin were reorganized, becoming markedly condensed around the nucleus. Although the fluorescence intensity of phosphoamino acids was not significantly different to immunocytochemistry between cells with and without CLA, polypeptides of 135, 140, 158, and 175 kDa were specifically phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues. There was no significant effect on tyrosine residues. The effects of CLA on cytoskeletal changes and protein phosphorylation were almost completely inhibited by the non-selective kinase inhibitor, K-252a. The effect of CLA on cell morphology was at least 100 times more potent than that of okadaic acid, consistent with the inhibitory potency against PP-1. The catalytic subunit of PP-1 was also identified in HUVECs by Western blotting with its monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that PP-1 is closely involved in sustaining the normal structure of the cytoskeleton. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: calpain activation ; platelet ; proteolysis of talin ; shear stress ; shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluid shear stress has been known to activate platelet reaction such as aggregation, but the exact mechanism of shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) has not been fully understood. Calpain, an intracellular calcium-activated cysteine protease, is abundant in platelets and is considered to be activated and involved in the proteolytic processes during platelet activation. A possible activation of calpain in SIPA was investigated, employing a newly developed aggregometer and specific monoclonal antibodies to detect activation of calpain. When a shear stress gradient varying between 6 and 108 dyn/cm2 was applied to platelets, activation of μ-calpain was observed only in high-shear-stressed platelets, resulting in the proteolysis of talin. At 1 min after the onset of constant high shear stress of 108 dyn/cm2, μ-calpain activation and proteolysis of talin were detected and increased in a time-dependent manner. Constant shear stress more than 50 dyn/cm2, applied for 5 min, caused μ-calpain activation and proteolysis of talin, which were increased in a shear-force-dependent manner. Calpeptin, a calpain-specific peptide antagonist, caused the complete inhibition of both μ-calpain activation and proteolysis of talin, while SIPA profiles with calpeptin showed almost no change compared to those without calpeptin. These results suggest the possibility of calpain involvement in late phases of shear-induced platelet activation such as cytoskeletal reorganization. J. Cell. Biochem. 66:54-64, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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