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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Polysomes ; Translation ; Microscopy, electron ; Sea urchin ; Embryology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chromatin spreading techniques have been applied to the electron microscopic visualization of polysomes in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) eggs and embryos. Polysomes of giant size are commonly found after the 8-cell stage. The largest seen, from an early gastrula, was 13.6 μm in length, carried 277 ribosomes, with a message calculated to contain 6.49×104 nucleotides and potentially to encoded 2.38×106 daltons of peptide. Polysomes are rare and very large ones absent from lysates of unfertilized eggs. Giant polysomes appear in 4- to 8-cell stages and are common in 16-cell stages and thereafter. They are of two forms: a compact form with no spacing between ribosomes characteristic of stages through early mesenchyme blastulae, and an extended form found only after late mesenchyme blastulae. Both have potential for massive informational content. Some of each type have ribosome-free tails at one end, as long as 733 Å in the compact forms, and 7,890 Å in the extended ones. Occasionally they have a single array of fibrous material increasing from one end of a polysome to the other, interpreted to be nascent peptide chains. Polysomes are not found after brief, mild exposure of lysates to RNase A, or from embryos treated with puromycin. Very large polysomes are present in lysates of blastulae exposed since fertilization to actinomycin D, cycloheximide, or cordycepin. They appear in parthenogenetically activated or fertilized enucleate merogones, but are absent from unactivated merogones, demonstrating that egg masked messages can generate them. A potential embryological significance of giant, potentially polycistronic polysomes is suggested.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fluorescence in situ hybridization using as probes three biotinylated or digoxigenin-labeled chicken W chromosome-specific repeating DNA units (0.7 and 1.1 kb XhoI family and 1.2 kb EcoRI family units) suggested that a large fraction of one arm of the W chromosome was occupied by the EcoRI family sequences and that pericentromeric regions were widely occupied by the XhoI family sequences. A minor fraction of the EcoRI family was also present in a narrow region in the proximal half of the other arm. There was a region in the distal half of the latter arm where sequences from neither family hybridized. Evolutionary aspects of the presence of different domains occupied by different repetitive families and the significance of the unhybridized distal region are discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The various species of Japanese hagfish, namely, Eptatretus okinoseanus (types A and B), Eptatretus burgeri and Myxine garmani, are known to eliminate a fraction of their chromosomes during early embryogenesis. High molecular weight DNA from germ line cells and somatic cells of these hagfish species was isolated and digested with different restriction enzymes. The DNA fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Digestion with BamHI and DraI generated two weak bands and one weak band, respectively, that were estimated to be about 90, and 180 bp and about 90 bp long and were limited to the germ line DNA in both types of E. okinoseanus. DNA filter hybridization experiments showed that the two BamHI fragments and the one DraI fragment were present almost exclusively in the germ line DNA of E. okinoseanus. Thus, these DNA fragments appear to be eliminated during embryogenesis. Moreover, evidence was obtained that these fragments are highly and tandemly repeated. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the BamHI fragments are mainly composed of a family of closely related sequences that are 95 bp long (EEEo1, for Eliminated Element of E. okinoseanus 1), and the DraI fragment is composed of another family of closely related sequences that are 85 bp long (EEEo2). The two DNA families account for about 19% of the total eliminated DNA in E. okinoseanus type A. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the two families of DNA are located on several C-band-positive, small chromosomes that are limited to germ cells in both types of E. okinoseanus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chromosomes and DNA sequence homologies have been studied in 15 species of North American salamander belonging to the genus Plethodon. These include 4 Eastern small species, 5 Eastern large species, 5 Western, and 1 New Mexican species. All species have 14 metacentric or sub-metacentric chromosomes. Their karyotypes are closely similar, but their C values range from 18–69 pg. DNA:DNA molecular hybridization studies showed that salamanders belonging to the same species group had between 60 and 90% of the observed repetitive DNA sequences in common, different groups of Eastern species had between 40 and 60% in common, and Eastern and Western groups had less than 10% in common. The slowly reassociating DNA sequences were also diverse among species, but higher levels of homology were observed than in the case of repetitive sequences. The New Mexican species was exceptional in showing little homology with other species with respect to either repetitive or slowly reassociating sequences.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intermediate repetitive sequences of Plethodon cinereus which comprised about 30% of the genomic DNA were isolated and iodinated with 125I. About 5% of the 125I-repetitive fraction hybridized with a large excess of DNA from P. dunni at Cot 20. About half of the 125I-DNA in the hybrids was resistant to extensive digestion with S-1 nuclease. The average molecular size of the S-1 nuclease-resistant fraction was about 100 nucleotide pairs. The melting temperature of the S-1 nuclease-resistant fraction was about 2° lower than that of the corresponding fraction made with P. cinereus DNA. These results are taken to indicate the presence in the genomes of P. cinereus and P. dunni of evolutionarily stable “common” repetitive sequences. The average frequency of repetition of the common repetitive sequences is about 6,000 × in both species. The common repetitive fraction is also present in the genomes of other species of Plethodon, although the general populations of intermediate repetitive sequences are markedly different from one species to another. The cinereus-dunni common repetitive sequences could not be detected in plethodontids belonging to different tribes, nor in more distantly related amphibians. The profiles of binding of the common repetitive sequences to CsCl or Cs2SO4-Ag+ density gradient fractions of P. dunni DNA suggested that these sequences consisted of heterogeneous components with respect to base compositions, and that they did not include large amounts of the genes for ribosomal RNA, 5S RNA, 4S RNA, or histone messenger RNA. — In situ hybridization of the 3H-labelled intermediate repetitive sequences of P. cinereus to male meiotic chromosomes of the same species gave autoradiographs after an exposure of seven days showing all 14 chromosomes labelled. The pattern of labelling appeared not to be random, but was impossible to analyse on account of the irregular shapes and different degrees of stretching of diplotene and prometaphase chromosomes. In situ hybridization of the same sequences to meiotic chromosomes from P. dunni gave autoradiographs after 60 d exposure in which all chromosomes were labelled. These heterologous in situ hybrids can only have involved the “common” repetitive sequences.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Evidence is presented to demonstrate the presence of W chromosome-specific repetitive DNA sequences in the female White Leghorn chicken, Gallus g. domesticus, based on two different experimental approaches. First, 3H-labelled, female chicken DNA was hybridized with excess, unlabelled, mercurated, male DNA, and unhybridized single-stranded 3H-DNA (3H-SHU-DNA) was recovered by SH-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. Approximately 24% of the hybridizable 3H-SHU-DNA was female-specific and localized on the W chromosome. The second approach was to examine female-specific DNA fragments among the digests of chicken DNA with various restriction endonucleases. Among them, we found that digestion with XhoI produced two prominent female-specific bands of 0.60 kb (= kilobase pairs) and 1.1 kb. The 0.60 kb fragment was isolated and 3H-labelled by nick-translation. Female-specificity of the 3H-XhoI—0.60 kb DNA was judged to be at least 95% under the conditions of hybridization with membrane filter-bound DNA. Presence of amplified XhoI—0.60 kb DNA on the W chromosome seems to be limited to different lines of G. g. domesticus and no such repeat was detected in three species belonging to other genera in the order Galliformes and in three species belonging to other avian orders.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Another family of repetitive sequences, designated the EcoRI family, was found in the DNA of the chicken W chromosome by hybridization with the W chromosome-specific XhoI family probe under conditions of low stringency. A 1.2 kb EcoRI fragment, the major repeating unit of the family, was cloned and sequenced. The 1.2 kb unit showed an overall sequence similarity of about 68% to the 0.7 kb XhoI family repeating unit and it consisted of tandem repeats of average length 21 bp, most of which contained (A)3–5 and (T)3–4 clusters separated by 6–8 G+C-rich sequences. These features and its behavior as a strongly bent molecule in solution were very similar to those found for other W chromosome-specific repetitive sequences in the order Galliformes: XhoI family of chicken, PstI family of turkey and TaqI family of pheasant. The cloned 1.2 kb unit contained 78 CpG dinucleotide sequences and those that were in HapII, HhaI and BstUI sites were shown to be extensively methylated in the genomic DNA. Repetition frequencies of the 1.2 kb unit among the female population of chicken fell into high- and low-level classes, which accounted for about 30% and 10%, respectively, of the DNa in the W chromosome. Thus, 70% to 90% of the DNA in the chicken W chromosome was shown to be occupied by bent-repetitive sequences. The EcoRI and XhoI family sequences were not intermingled over the short range but each family formed a unique domain ranging from one to several million base pairs.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: chicken W chromosome ; curved repetitive DNA ; heterochromatin ; late replication ; nucleosome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract About 65% of DNA in the chicken W chromosome has been shown to consist ofXhoI andEcoRI family repetitive sequences. These sequences showed remarkable delay in the electrophoretic mobility at low temperature on a polyacrylamide gel. Three dimensional structures of the 0.7-kbXhoI and the 1.2-kbEcoRI family repeating units were estimated to be irregular solenoids using a computer program based on wedge angles of all the 16 dinucleotide steps. Fluorescencein situ hybridization demonstrated that these two family sequences were localized in a major heterochromatic body in an interphase nucleus. Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into the W chromosome in the synchronous culture of MSB-1 cells occurred about 1 h later than the peak of S phase. The chromatin structure formed alongXhoI andEcoRI family sequences was suggested to be different from the total chromatin or chromatin containing the β-actin gene sequence in that the linker DNA lengths of the former were significantly longer. Fractionation of theHaeIII-digested MSB-1 nuclei yielded a chromatin fraction in whichXhoI family sequences were partially enriched. Several DNA-binding proteins showing higher affinity for theXhoI family sequence were present in this fraction.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The arrangement of chromosomes in the elongated sperm nuclei of chicken was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes specific for telomeres of all chromosomes, a microchromosome, the long arm of chromosome 6, the large heterochromatic block on the Z-chromosome, and the same heterochromatic block plus subtelomeric sites on macrochromosomes 1–4. The positions of all probes vary from one sperm to another. No order in chromosome arrangement is apparent. It is suggested that large chromosome size and small chromosome number correlate with constant positions of chromosomes and vice versa. Based on the known quantity of repetitive units of the repeat on the Z-chromosome, the degree of compaction of chromatin in the chicken sperm nucleus is estimated as ca 0.7 Mb/µm. As judged from the length of the heterochromatic region of the Z-chromosome at the lampbrush stage, the total length of the Z-chromosome in mature sperm is 2.5–4 times that of the sperm nucleus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two female-specific repeating DNA units of 0.6 kilobase pairs (kb) and 1.1 kb, produced by digesting the genomic DNA of the White Leghorn chicken with Xho I, were cloned by inserting them into the Xho I site of an Escherichia coli plasmid vector pACYC177. Two such recombinant plasmids, pAGD0601 and pAGD1101, containing a single 0.6-kb and 1.1-kb sequence, respectively, were used as molecular probes. In situ hybridization of the 3Hprobes to the metaphase chromosomes from the female White Leghorn embryos revealed their localization in the W chromosome. Semiquantitative Southern blot hybridization with 32P-probes in excess indicated that the 0.6-kb unit and 1.1-kb unit were repeated approximately 14,000 and 6,000 times, respectively, in the W chromosome. The two units comprised about 46% of the W chromosomal DNA. These two repeating units were found in the female genomes of every line of Gallus g. domesticus tested and in the female genomes of three jungle fowl species (G. gallus, G. sonneratii, and G. varius) but not in three species belonging to other genera in the suborder Galli. Hha I sites in the 0.6-kb and 1.1-kb repeating units were shown to be extensively methylated and a significant fraction of the Hpa II sites in the 0.6-kb repeating units were also shown to be methylated in the female genome of the White Leghorn. Methylation patterns of Hpa II sites in or around the 0.6-kb repeating units examined by the Msp I digestion were similar in the various lines of domestic fowls and the two species of jungle fowls, but G. varius (black or green jungle fowl) produced a different pattern of digestion with Msp I.
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