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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Toxic trace metals like mercury, arsenic and cadmium have been determined in widely used Indian chewing tobacco and cigarette tobacco by neutron activation followed by sequential radiochemical separation (RNAA). Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) has been used for the estimation of lead, cadmium and copper in cigarette tobacco and its smoke aerosols. The reliability of the data has been assured by analyzing standard reference materials, bovine liver (NBS-1577) and orchard leaves (NBS-1571), and intercomparison of the Pb, Cd and Cu values by three techniques, namely, RNAA, DPASV and Energy Dispersive X-ray Flourescence technique (EDXRF). The levels of Hg, Cd, As, Pb and Cu in cigarette and chewing tobacco and the estimated intake of Cd, Cu and Pb to the smoker are presented and discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The Environmental Survey Laboratory is responsible for the monitoring of radioactivity due to natural and artificially produced radionuclides in a variety of samples available around the nuclear facilities at Tarapur. Standard methods of radiochemical separation and counting are followed to determine β-emitters in various matrices. To make the measurement simple and detect lower levels of contamination in some of the matrices, a method was developed to measure the high energy gross β-activity primarily due to 90Y in borehole water and urine samples of occupational workers by Cerenkov counting in a liquid scintillation analyser. Cerenkov counting results of borehole samples were compared with the total gross β-activity measured by a low background beta-counter. The combined measurements were used to evaluate 90Sr and 137Cs levels without chemical separation or gamma-spectrometry. Cerenkov counting technique was also utilised to evaluate 40K in drinking water and intercomparison water samples. The paper presents the methodology and results of a few measurements using the technique.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The blood serum is the fluid medium through which most of the minerals are absorbed into the human body and get metabolized. The concentrations of Th in blood serum is in equilibrium with the content of Th in human body and therefore could reflect its content in the body. The daily intake (ingestion and inhalation) and the corresponding concentration of Th in blood serum of a group of subjects living in the high-background (monazite) area of Kerala State were measured and compared with the daily intake and corresponding blood serum concentrations of Th in three other groups of subjects namely: (1) those living in normal background area, (2) administrative staff working in Thorium Plant but not directly exposed to Th and its compounds, and (3) the occupational workers from Thorium Plant working for a time period in the range15–30 years. The Th concentration in the blood serum of subjects from high background area were found to be only marginally higher in comparison to the similar data from normalbackground area, which indicated that internal exposure due to Th to the subjects living in high background is quite low.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Trace elements play an important role in the metabolism of the human body. Some of the trace elements are essential, whereas others are toxic and even carcinogenic. Cigarette smoke contains many of these hazardous trace elements. Tobacco samples have been analyzed by the authors for their trace element contents and the results have been reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in this laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke of a large number of commonly available brands of cigarettes were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This work supplements the data on same samples gathered by INAA and reported earlier. Data on some toxic elements like Pb, Cu and Ni that could not be measured by INAA are presented here. A number of chewing and snuff tobacco samples were also analyzed. The concentrations of Ca, K, Cl, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn in all these samples are presented and their relative hazards are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Radioactive elements like 232Th and 238U along with their daughter products, form part of all environmental matrices and are getting transferred to living beings by different pathways, leading to a continuous radiation exposure and need to be monitored. This paper presents an analytical methodology, highlighting the need to separate interfering beta- and gamma-emitters from the analytes, when neutron activation analysis is employed for the determination of traces of uranium and thorium in soil and plant materials. The method has been applied to the soil and plant materials from selected regions of India, along with standard reference materials to verify the validity of the proposed separation scheme. The overall reproducibility of the procedure was 2–10%. The concentration values of uranium and thorium so obtained, have been used to calculate transfer factors from soil to various parts of wheat plant.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Trace elements present in Indian cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke have been reported earlier. This paper presents trace element concentrations in chewing and snuff tobaccos determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The levels of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, etc., present in different brands of chewing and snuff tobaccos are compared in two types of tobacco as well as with similar data from other countries.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Studies on radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests have been carried out at this laboratory since the mid-fifties. The data thus generated on the levels and composition of radioactive fallout in India has been published periodically. Consequent to the Chernobyl reactor accident in the USSR in April 1986, similar studies were carried out. A number of fairly active samples were collected from commercial aircraft which had flown over the USSR soon after the accident. Even though the levels of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident observed in India were not significant from a health hazard view point, the studies provided detailed information on differences in the composition of fallout from the accident and long term radiation exposures likely to accrue from the Chernobyl fallout as opposed to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. This paper presents the results and their interpretation on the above aspects.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cu were measured by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for event rainwater samples collected at Deonar (Bombay). A relationship between measured wet deposition of these trace metals and amount of rainfall is calculated. The power law exponent of 0.6 is found suitable to describe the relationship between wet deposition and rainfall amount of monsoonal rain.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A convenient electroanalytical technique for the simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in human blood and teeth is described. The method is based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE). Optimum conditions for the anodic stripping of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were determined using ammonium acetate and dilute nitric acid (pH 2) as electrolytes. Interferences from other metals were not observed and the estimations were reproducible within a standard deviation of±4%. Low blank values and high sensitivity of the method allowed the determinations at sub-ppb levels with an electrolysis time of 1–3 min. The accuracy of the method has been tested by comparison with the results obtained by mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The results and findings are discussed in brief.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Eine vorteilhafte elektroanalytische Methode zur Bestimmung von Pb, Cd, Cu und Zn in menschlichem Blut und in Zähnen wird beschrieben. Das Verfahren beruht auf der Differentialpuls-Anodic Stripping Voltammetrie an der statischen Quecksilbertropfelektrode. Mit Hilfe von Ammoniumacetat und verdünnter Salpetersäure (pH 2) als Trägerelektrolyten wurden die optimalen Bedingungen ausgearbeitet. Störungen durch andere Metalle wurden nicht beobachtet. Die Standardabweichung betrug ±4%. Infolge der niedrigen Blindwerte und der hohen Empfindlichkeit konnten Bestimmungen im Sub-ppb-Bereich mit Elektrolysezeiten von 1–3 min durchgeführt werden. Die Genauigkeit der Methode wurde durch Vergleich mit massenspektrometrischen und AAS-Untersuchungen bewiesen. Die Ergebnisse werden kurz diskutiert.
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