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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: This study focused on population structure, species diversity and abundance of the Chitgar Lake fishes in October 2014. Based on the lake location fish samples were collected at 34 stations in water body. In this study, 8 families belonging to 18 species comprised of Cyprinidae (11 species), Cichlidae (one species), Loricariidae (one species), Pangasiidae (one species), Serrasalmidae (one species), Poeciliidea (one species), Salmonidae (one species), and Scaridae (one species) were identified. Among the fishes just one native fish from Capoeta bohsei species observed during the study. The dominant lake fishes were invasive species Hemiculter leucisculus, Alburnushohenackeri, Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva. The highest abundant fishes were H. leucisculus 62 % and A. hohenackeri 35 % by Seine net. Furthermore, those were dominant abundance (69 and 12 % respectively) in Gill net method. Finally, in Cast net method A. hohenackeri 38 %, Pseudorasbora parva 21 % and H. leucisculus 17 % were dominated in the shore region. The lowest abundant fishes were P. hypophthalmus and Parrotfish. Overall more than 90 % of the fish population were invasive and alien species. Thus, the presence of invasive fishes and lack of predator fishes in the Chitgar Lake might be reason for increasing of trophic level.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi which was accidentally introduced into the Caspian Sea in 1999 and since then has colonized extensively. The horizontal distribution of M. leidyi and dominant mesozooplankton species was investigated in the south western Caspian Sea during February, May, July and November 2008. The average number and biomass of M. leidyi were in the same range (ca 200 individuals m^-3 (2000 ind m^-2)) and 16 g wet weight m^-3 (180 g m^-2) in comparison with previous surveys. As in previous years the population consisted mainly of individuals 〈1 cm. The decline in mesozooplankton species observed since 1996 continued in 2008. Only two species of the previously recorded 24 Cladocera species were found in 2008. Of five Copepoda species recorded in 1996, only one, Acartia tonsa, was found in 2008 and even here adult individuals have reduced 3-fold since 1996. Bivalve larvae have declined by one order of magnitude since 1996. Among the dominant species, only the numbers of Cirripedia larvae and in part the numbers of Pleopis polyphemoides (Cladocera) were in the same range as in 1996.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The bioaccumulations of metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in bivalves, Cerastoderma glaucum, and four species of fishes including Alburnus chalcoides, Liza aurata, Rutilus frisii and Sander lucioperca from various trophic levels of the Caspian food web. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Co and Ni in most samples of fish were below the detection limits; while the concentrations were detected in most samples of bivalve C. glaucum. The stable nitrogen isotope ratios varied among the samples from C. glaucum (δ^15N=3.5 ‰) to S. lucioperca (δ^15N=13.1‰). Among the four fish species, while the highest concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were observed in L. aurata, the lowest concentrations of Mn and Fe were observed in S. lucioperca. These species also had the lowest and highest trophic levels with an average of 3.3 and 4.2, respectively. No accumulation of metals with increase in body size was observed in muscles of species from different trophic levels. The comparison of metal concentrations with the health guidelines for human consumption showed that those intakes were lower than the legislated limits. While there was a strong relationship between trophic levels and body size of A. chalcoides and R. frisii, no significant slopes were observed between the total lengths (TLs) and the Ln concentrations of metals. It is necessary to determine metal concentrations in food resources of fish species, particularly in R. frisii that has significantly different δ^15N in relation to body size.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The ecosystem of the Caspian Sea have been strikingly changed by human activities. This area has undergone significant ecological alterations and serious environmental degradation since the beginning of 1990s. The impact of fish cage culture on the zooplankton community was studied in the southwestern Caspian Sea, off Jafrud during January to April 2013. A total of 12 zooplankton belonging to 9 taxa were identified at the study area. Only one species of Cladocera (Pleopis polyphemoides), was present in our study. Acartia tonsa and Balanus improvisus were the most dominant species. Bivalvia larvae, P. polyphemoides (Cladocera) and Synchaeta sp. (Rotifera) occurred only in January. The average of zooplankton abundance varied between 1,600 and 14,500 ind.m^-3 in the study. The principal component analysis revealed the spatial variations of zooplankton abundance between the fish cage culture site and the reference site stations. The findings confirmed the impact of fish cage culture on the zooplankton population structure from the prominent abundance of A. tonas, B. improvisus, P. polyphemoides, and Bivalvia larvae at the fish cage site as compared with the reference site.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Sabzkooh in Ardal and Gandoman region in Charmahal province with annual production of 1300 metric tons of rainbow trout, is one of the most important rivers in the province. The effects of fish farms effluent on the river water quality and the possibilities to develop or limit the existing ones were studied. Flora and fauna of the river including Phyto and zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled and studied. Moreover some key physico-chemical water quality parameters, concentrations of stable pollutants (heavy metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and agricultural poisons (herbicides or pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate) and Coliform contamination were also measured. All phytoplankton genus were of tow taxa, Cianophyta and Chrysophyta and zooplankton fauna belonged to Rotatoria, Protozoa and meroplanktonic chirinomids and nematodes. Four fish species from 3 families were identified of which rainbow trout had the highest relative frequency (94.6%).All the measured heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and the agricultural poisons concentrations such as DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate were lower than the hazardous level suggested for the surface waters. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates populations study, stations at downstream (no. 6 and 7) which received the Chartakhteh and Rudarud farms effluent had least EPT richness and the hilsenhof family level biotic index at this locations was greater than 5.25, classifying them as having organic pollution. Even though measured key physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients (N and P compounds and BOD5) in the receiving stations and effluent water never exceed the maximum permitted range but in downstream stations these factors were very close to the range. One way analyze of variance (P 95%) for TN, TP, No_2, NH_4, BOD_5, pH, PO_4 and Ec revealed no significant differences between stations before and just after receiving the effluents, however these parameters in the effluents themselves significantly differ from upstream stations 1,2 and 3 proving relatively lower organic pollution and the potential for constructing new farms or expanding the existed ones in upstream region from Chartagh to Dehnoo. At downstream from Dehnoo to Rudarud and lower parts, dense trout farm effluents in addition with point and non point pollution (municipal, agricultural and other coming run off from the catchments area) had remarkable effects on the river water quality and as a result no farm construction or expansion is recommended. To avoid or reduce the existing farms effects on the river system there should be certainly some remediation actions carried out. Constructing sedimentation ponds before releasing the effluents, obeying the rule of water extracting, preventing fish escape, increasing feeding efficiency and controlling the lateral inlets from catchments area which are potentially pollutant, should be considered to improve the situation and prevent further environmental problems caused by fish farms effluent in these area.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Studying native fishes of Hamadan province have been done in 159 stations from 51 important water resources (wetland, reservoir, spring, river and qanat) using with electric tool, cast-net, seine and gill-net gears from July 2010 to Oct. 2011 and the main aims were species identifying and determining their distribution and abundance in the studied area. In the study, 33411 fish specimens are caught in 257 times of sampling and selected randomly about 8500 individual and laboratory works showed the fish belong to 37 species from 7 families. Cyprinidae with 25, Nemacheilidae with 6 and Sisoridae with 2 species had the most diversity and Cobitidae, Poeciliidae, Salmonidae and Mastacembelidae had only a representative. 31 fish species were native or endemic and 6 species were alien. Fish species existed in all rivers of Ghezelozan and Sirvan sub-basins but there were not any fish in 10 rivers of Ghara-Chai sub-basin and in 6 rivers of Gamasiab sub-basin, too. Also, it was observe 1-3 fish species in 15 rivers, 4-6 fish species in 10 rivers, 7-10 fish species in 5 rivers and more than 10 fish species in 4 main water resources and Gamasiab sub-basin with 32 fish species was the most diversified and Ghezelozan sub-basin with 2 fish species was the least diversified. There were any species to 4 (mostly 1 or 2) fish species in studied qanats in Ghara-Chai and Gamasiab rivers sub-basins. 23 fish species existed in a subbasin, 12 species in 2 sub-basin, Capoeta capoeta in 3 sub-basin and Squalius cephalus in all sub-basins of studied area. Alburnoides nicolausi,Capoeta aculeata and Alburnus mossulensis have had the most frequency. Studying fish abundance showed Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma with 17.8%, Garra rufa with 12.3%, A. mossulensis with 12.1% and C. aculeata with 10.2 % of total number of caught fish specimens are dominant. S. cephalus, Capoeta damascina, C. aculeata, C. trutta, Chondrostoma regium and A. mossulensis have had sport fishing value but Acanthobrama marmid, Oxynoemacheilus kiabii, Oxynoemacheilus kermanshahensis, Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi, Alburnus caeruleus and Mastacembelus mastacembelus have biodiversity value for being endemic or having limited habitats in Iran.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: To reveal the fisheries productivity and to get the maximum possible exploitations of the running water resources, existing potentials for aquaculture in Shit and Kordabad rivers in Tarom of Zanjan province were surveyed in a one year round study. In this way 4 and 3 sampling site were respectively selected in Shit and Kordabad rivers and benthic macroinvertebrates and water samples were collected and analyzed at least two times a season and fish fauna were also sampled and studied only two times during the period. All the measured water quality characteristics(such as O_2, water temperature, pH, nutrients, NH_3, BOD_5 and . . . ) were within the normal range suggested for the cold water fish culture. In both rivers no significant differences (p≤95%) were detected for physicochemical parameters within the study sites except for electrical conductivity and total hardness which differed in the firs and last station. Depletion of Agricultural run off and residual from the adjacent farmlands and municipal drainages into the water body of the rivers, were certainly effective in these changes However none of water quality parameters exceed the maximum permitted level for aquaculture. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates study 38 family of 12 taxa and 26 family of the 11 taxa were identified in Shit and Kordabad rivers respectively, most of them belonged to the aquatic insect larvae of the sensitive groups. Community structure indices and Hilsenhof family level biotic index proved a "very good" to "good" water quality criteria for the study sites in both rivers .One fish species in Shit and five species (4 of them were endemic) were identified in Kordabad river. Despite acceptable water quality in Shit river, some inhibiting factors such as adjacent farmlands and dense agricultural land use, high slope of river valley in most region which cause rare suitable lands for locating aquaculture sites, very limited access to road and electricity supply and lack of acceptability to manipulate or divert river water for fish farms, by the local people, are the major constrains for constructing trout farms in Shit river. However constructing a 15 mt capacity rainbow trout farm is possible at first 2 kilometers of the upstream where the water quality and quantity are relatively better and there are some lands with low slope and access to road and electricity supply. Kordabad river has a similar criteria and water quality and quantity at upstream is desirable for rainbow trout culture. The first 2 kilometer of this river is capable of constructing trout farms in some non cultivated lands. Moreover the Kordabad natural dam reservoir is available to conduct its water for further demands. In addition a total of 75mt rainbow trout production in the form of 2 or 3 separate site is possible in this river. Even though the local climate particularly in Kordabad river is acceptable for carp fishes, however land limitations, soil texture and the high volume of water demands, make warm water fishes commercial production impossible.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-12-03
    Description: Anzali Wetland as a listed habitat in Montreux Record, was investigated for the mammal fauna during Jan. 2015 - Jan. 2016. About 165 km of water bodies and 200 km around Anzali Wetland were patrolled, respectively. By applying different methods, such as direct observation, different signs recording, using different sampling traps,nets and camera traps, twenty mammal species were identified from 5 orders and 13 families. While Wild boar,Golden Jackal and Common otter were widely distributed, Common badger, Asiatic wildcat and Jungle cat were observed in some parts of this wetland. Six rodent species were recognized in different parts of the wetland. Among four identified bat species, Nathusius’s pipistrelle has been reported only from this region in Iran. The most commonly recorded bat species was the Soprano pipistrelle, a species hereto recorded only from two Iranian localities. Two recognized species from order Eulipotyphla; Caspian shrew and a mysterious mole are important due to their narrow geographical distribution range as well as their taxonomic situation. Although there was no quantitative or qualitative data from the past, our results show that the situation of many mammal species are not suitable, and some of them are being increasingly threatened.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: The experiments with Beroe ovata showed that this ctenophore can survive and reproduce in the Caspian Sea water, though at far lower rate than in the Black Sea; larval growth in the Caspian Sea water was also slower and mortality higher. Maximum fecundity of 2210 and 240 eggs recorded in laboratories of Turkey and Iran, respectively. About 34 to 100% of eggs in the Caspian Sea water could not develop and hatch. Larvae were at different stages of development, usually with size between 1.2 to 2mm. The highest number of eggs and larvae were obtained in tanks where Beroe individuals were together with Mnemiopsis leidyi. The poor reproduction of B. ovata in the Caspian Sea water could be due to both the acclimation stress to low salinity and possible damage of individuals during the transportation.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: This study was conducted in the Chitgar Lake in 2014. Chitgar Lake, 130 hectares in area is an artificial lake located in the north-west of Tehran City, Iran. For the first time the seasonal sampling of fish was done by three fishing methods gill net, cast net and beach seine, and a random sample of 3160 fish was collected. Some morphometric and meristic factors of samples were studied in the laboratory, and the distribution, abundance and species composition were determined. According to the results obtained, 95% of fish population was comprised of aggressive species such as; Hemiculter leucisculus, Pseudoras boraparva and Alburnus hohenackeri. There are 14 fish species in the lake, 9 species of which belong to the Cyprinidae family, 2 species including Capoeta buhsei and Capoeta capoeta are the only native species.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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