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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-77/28
    In: CRREL Report, 77-28
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 16 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 77-28
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Conversion factors: U.S. customary to metric (SI) Units of measurement vIntroduction Test procedure Pavement types Deicing chemicals Description of tests Discussion Literature cited Appendix A: Test results Appendix B: Portland cement concrete materials data ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Typical photographs of PCC samples before testing and after 60 freeze.thaw cycles Movable rack Terminal surface condition ratings of old and new air-entrained and non-air-entrainedPCC specimens Abrasion apparatus Cumulative loss from air-entrained PCC specimens by abrasion TABLES Visual rating scheme for scaling resistance Materials tested Summary of PCC observations Abrasion test
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-77/17
    In: CRREL Report
    Description / Table of Contents: A literature search was made for information on the accretion of ice on ocean structures and on methods for control. The bulk of the reports were in Russian, with some additional Japanese, British, American, Canadian, and Icelandic sources. Analysis of icing reports indicated that sea spray is the most important cause of ship icing, with lesser amounts due to freezing rain, snow, and fog. Icing is a potential danger whenever air temperatures are below the freezing point of water and the sea temperature is 6 C or lower. Theoretical work on the ice accretion process is discussed, and a method is suggested, based on Russian experiments, for calculating the sea spray accumulation rate for cylindrical and flat surfaces as a function of water source temperature, air temperature, and wind speed. Other factors that influence icing severity are ship size and configuration, angle between ship course and water heading, and ship speed. Icing in the north temperate latitudes generally occurs in the rear of barometric depressions. Maps showing limits of various degrees of icing severity are included. Atmospheric icing measurements on tall land-based structures are presented, and potential maximum accumulations estimated. Control measures are discussed, though no completely effective method is available. Mechanical (impaction) methods are the most common, but experiments have been conducted on heated, icephobic, and deformable surfaces, and with freezing point depressants. No device for the unequivocal measurement of ice accumulation is available, though some experimental methods are suitable for controlled testing; it is recommended that a device be developed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 42 S. : graph. Darst., Kt.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 77-17
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Conversion factors: U.S. customary to metric units of measurements Introduction The freezing proeess Icing observations 4Geographical distribution of icing and contributing meteorological con-ditions Extreme icing conditions Extremes of icc accumulation Prediction of icing occurrences Prediction of icing intensity and rate Control methods Measurement of icing rate Conclusions and recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. Maps of icing occurrence and rate Appendix B. Data for computing ship icing rates Appendix C. Estimation of ice accumulation ILLUSTRATIONS Phase relations for standard sea ice Relationship between meteorological conditions and type of icing Icing severity as related to air temperature and wind velocity Dependence of spray intensity on a ship on heading and wave height Dependence of spray intensity on speed of ship and wave heading Graphs for determination of ice accretion on fishing vessels at lowspeeds Variation of average diameter and weight of ice accumulation withheight on meteorological tower at Obninsk, U.S.S.R Variation of density of ice accumulation p with height monmeteorological tower at Obninsk, U.S.S.R Dependence of density of ice deposit p on air temperature tonmeteorological tower at Obninsk, U.S.S.R Collection efficiency of a cylinder Collection efficiency E is determined by an inertia parameter K andthe parameter 0 Critical radius of cylinder above which icing theoretically does notoccur Variation of collection efficiency F of a 1 5-mm radius circularcylinder with cloud droplet radius r and wind speed u
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/18
    In: CRREL Report, 82-18
    Description / Table of Contents: Snow and ice control on highways has come to rely heavily on the use of sodium chloride to maintain a trafficable surface for unimpeded movement. Empirical approaches have led to a wide range of application rates, some clearly excessive, but justified on the ground of safety and expediency. The combination of environmental degradation from the huge quantities of salt entering the environment, along with the increased cost of salt itself and the cost of its application have spurred the search for more precise knowledge of the proper amount of salt to apply to a pavement, considering a range of environmental, traffic and chemical parameters. Since controlled tests in the field are extremely difficult to make, a circular test track of three test pavements, dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGA), open-graded asphaltic concrete (DGA) and portland cement concrete (PCC), was constructed in a coldroom. Natural snow and ice were applied to the pavements and an instrumented slipping wheel was driven over the surfaces to generate frictional forces. These forces were measured and then used to evaluate the response to salt application with time for three test temperatures. OGA had the lowest friction values at a temperature near the freezing point, but higher initial values or more rapidly increasing values than DGA and PCC following salt application at the two lower temperatures. Optimum application rate of salt on PCC and DGA lies between 100 and 300 lb/lane mile (LM), and a higher rate resulted in slight or no improvement in friction. DGA showed anomalous results: lower friction for 300 Ib/LM and higher friction for both 100 and 500 Ib/LM.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 55 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-18
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Objectives Background Approach Influencing factors Field factors Laboratory Laboratory trafficking tests Force measurement and coefficient of friction Test tire slip Surface friction gauge Test procedure British portable tester Experimental results Conclusions Recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. Test pavements Appendix B. Pennsylvania State University field study Appendix C. Rochester Institute of Technology field study
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 4
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/31
    In: CRREL Report, 80-31
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice accretion on structures built on the earth’s surface is discussed. Sources of water are the atmosphere or water bodies near or surrounding the structure. Ice types include frost, rime, glaze, and spray; properties and conditions governing their formation are presented. Methods of estimating accretion rates and total accretion on structures are given, and extracts from U.S. and Canadian codes for ice and wind loads on structures are included. Techniques for preventing or removing ice accretion are presented.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-31
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface 1. Types of ice accretion a. Frost b. Rime c. Glaze d. Spray ice 2. Conditions governing type of accreted ice a. Meteorological b. Structural 3. Accretion rates a. Fundamentals b. Effect of height c. Geographical distribution 4. Spray icing 5. Structural design factors a. Dead loads b. Wind field in the boundary layer c. Windloads 6. Techniques for minimizing structural icing 7. Data collection needs 8. Literature cited
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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