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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-12-03
    Description: Paramyosin is a myosin-binding protein characteristic of invertebrate animals, while troponin is a Ca 2+ -dependent regulator of muscle contraction. Both proteins are widely distributed in protostomes, while in deuterostomes, their distribution is limited; namely, presence of paramyosin and absence of troponin are common features in echinoderm muscles, while muscles of chordates contain troponin but lack paramyosin. In this study, we examined the muscle of a hemichordate, acorn worm, to clarify whether this animal is like echinoderms or like the other deuterostome animals. We found a 100-kDa protein in the smooth muscle of acorn worm. This protein was identified with paramyosin, since the purified protein formed paracrystals with a constant axial periodicity in the presence of divalent cations as paramyosin of other animals, showed ability to interact with myosin and shared common antigenicity with echinoderm paramyosin. On the other hand, troponin band was not detected in isolated thin filaments, and the filaments increased myosin-ATPase activity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner. The results indicate that troponin is lacking in thin filaments of acorn worm muscle just as in those of echinoderms. The muscle of hemichordate acorn worm is quite similar to echinoderm muscles, but different from chordate muscles.
    Print ISSN: 0021-924X
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-2651
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Key words Cell fate ; Skeletogenic potential ; Echinoid ; Induction ; Secondary mesenchyme cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  During the normal development of echinoids, an animal cap consisting of 8 mesomeres in a 16-cell stage embryo differentiates exclusively into ectoderm. Micromeres in an embryo at the same stage differentiate into primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) and coelomic pouch constituents. An animal cap and a quartet of micromeres were isolated from a 16-cell stage embryo and recombined to make a chimeric embryo devoid of presumptive endoderm and secondary mesenchyme cells (SMC). The PMC in the chimeric embryo were completely removed at the mesenchyme blastula stage. The PMC-depleted chimeric embryos formed an archenteron derived from the mesomeres. Some secondary mesenchyme-like cells (induced SMC) were released from the archenteron tip. A considerable fraction of the induced SMC formed the typical mesenchyme pattern after migrating into the vegetal region, synthesized skeletogenic mesenchyme cell-surface protein (msp130) and produced the larval skeleton. These findings indicate that induced SMC derived from the presumptive ectoderm have the same nature as natural SMC in both the timing of their release and their skeletogenic potential expressed in the absence of PMC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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