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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this study, aircraft observations from the Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter are used to characterize the variability in drizzle, cloud, and aerosol properties associated with cloud rifts and the surrounding solid clouds observed off the coast of California. A flight made on 16 July 1999 provided measurements directly across an interface between solid and rift cloud conditions. Aircraft instrumentation allowed for measurements of aerosol, cloud droplet, and drizzle spectra. CCN concentrations were measured in addition to standard thermodynamic variables and the winds. A Forward Scatter Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) measured size distribution of cloud-sized droplets. A Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) was used to measure distributions of drizzle-sized droplets. Aerosol distributions were obtained from a Cloud Aerosol Scatterprobe (CAS). The CAS probe measured aerosols, cloud droplets and drizzle-sized drops; for this study. The CAS probe was used to measure aerosols in the size range of 0.5 micron - 1 micron. Smaller aerosols were characterized using an Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) sensor. The CPC was used to measure particles with diameters greater than 0.003 micron. By subtracting different count concentrations measured with the CPC, this probe was capable of identifying ultrafine particles those falling in the size range of 3 nanometers - 7 nanometers that are believed to be associated with new particle production.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 14th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP 2004); Jul 18, 2004 - Jul 23, 2004; Bologna; Italy
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: One of the largest forest fires ever recorded burned in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Soviet Union in May 1987. The fire covered over 1.0 million hectares in the PRC and almost 4 million hectares in the Soviet Union. The progress and areal extent of the fire were measured using satellite images analyzed in the imaging facilities at NASA-Langley and Forestry Canada. The analyses show the utility and value of satellite measurements to assess the areal extent and geographical distribution of fires, and have important implications for future measurements to be obtained from space platforms, such as the Earth Observing System.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The effect of the viewing zenith angle (VZA) on the cloudiness values observed by a satellite was investigated using a combination of two cloud-amount data sets derived from nearly simultaneous collocated GOES-E and GOES-W radiance measurements over the Pacific Ocean during May 1979 and July 1983. A hybrid bispectral threshold method was used to analyze data for single-layer and total cloudiness. It was found that the cloud fraction values increased with increasing VZA for almost all cases. Low clouds exhibited the greatest increases with a VZA increase for cloud amounts in the 0.1 range, whereas high clouds showed greatest increases for cloud amounts around 0.5. Midlevel clouds showed only a slight dependence on VZA. Total cloudiness increased the most, reflecting its predominantly low-cloud composition.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 2303-232
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A hybrid bispectral threshold method (HBTM) is presently used to compare cloud amounts derived from Landsat digital data over 22 regions having various cloud types with cloudiness information obtained from collocated, nearly-simultaneous 4 x 8-km GOES visible and IR data. A sensitivity analysis indicates that an rms underestimation of about 0.01 in clear sky reflectance by the HBTM increased the GOES cloud amount by 0.06, which is more than twice the decrese in cloud amount obtained by an equivalent increase in clear-sky reflectance. Landsat imagery and cloud properties derived from the Landsat data are used to explain how the partially cloud-filled GOES pixels were treated by the HBTM. It is found that the HBTM accounts for the effects of partially cloud-filled FOVs in most cases of the present study.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 9385-940
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A cirrus parameter retrieval methodology and the results of its application over the cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) area using data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) taken during the FIRE cirrus case study days, October 27-28, 1986. An impirical cloud bidirectional reflectance model derived from another IFO analysis was combined with a theoretical ice crystal cloud albedo model to estimate visible cloud optical thickness, which was used to derive the cloud infrared emittance. Cloud altitude was adjusted based on the derived emittance and observed temperatures. The approach developed here produced a very reasonable picture of cirrus cloud fields. It was estimated that the cloud-top and cloud-center heights are derived with a precision of about 0.6 km, except in very broken cloud conditions. Cirrus cloud thicknesses were also estimated and it is found that the derived results are comparable to other case study observations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Monthly Weather Review (ISSN 0027-0644); 118; 2426-244
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A technique is developed that uses a multispectral, multiresolution method to improve the overall retrieval of mid- to high-level cloud properties by combining HIRS sounding channel data with higher spatial resolution AVHRR radiometric data collocated with the HIRS footprint. Cirrus cloud radiative and physical properties are determined using satellite data, surface-based measurements provided by rawinsondes and lidar, and aircraft-based lidar data collected during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment in Wisconsin during the months of October and November 1986. HIRS cloud-height retrievals are compared to ground-based lidar and aircraft lidar when possible. Retrieved cloud heights are found to have close agreement with lidar for thin cloud, but are higher than lidar for optically thick cloud. The results of the reflectance-emittance relationships derived are compared to theoretical scattering model results for both water-droplet spheres and randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals. It is found that the assumption of 10-micron water droplets is inadequate to describe the reflectance-emittance relationship for the ice clouds seen here. Use of this assumption would lead to lower cloud heights using the ISCCP approach. The theoretical results show that use of hexagonal ice crystal phase functions could lead to much improved results for cloud retrieval algorithms using a bispectral approach.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 31; 351-369
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The relationship between narrowband and broadband thermal radiances is explored to determine the accuracy of outgoing longwave radiation derived from narrowband data. Infrared window (10.2-12.2 microns) data from the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite are correlated with longwave (5.0-50.0 microns) data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. A simple quadratic fit between the narrowband and longwave fluxes results in standard errors of 4.4-5.3 percent for data that are matched closely in time and space. The use of matched regional flux data with temporal differences up to 59 minutes yields standard errors of 4.1-5.4 percent. About 30 percent of the error may be attributed to limb darkening and spatial and temporal differences in the matched fluxes. The relationship shows a statistically significant dependence on the relative humidity of the atmosphere above the radiating surface. Although this dependency accounts for only about 1 percent of the standard error, it reduces the monthly mean regional errors by more than 10 percent. Data taken over land produced a relationship slightly different from data taken over water. The differences appear to be primarily due to daytime heating of the land surface.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 4; 1114-113
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 4051-407
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Three independent examples are discussed which suggest that photochemical ozone production in the troposphere can be observed in the tropics from an analysis of total ozone data. The first finding shows that the seasonal cycle of total columnar ozone is dominated by the seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone, even though tropospheric ozone accounts for only 5-15 percent of the total ozone. Second, a case study is presented which shows that enhanced total ozone observed over the Amazon Basin can be associated with the presence of biomass burning. In situ measurements have confirmed that biomass burning does result in the production of photochemically generated ozone, analogous to the formation of 'smog' near industrialized areas. Third, an analysis of the distribution of carbon monoxide obtained from a Space Shuttle platform is strongly correlated with the concurrent distribution of total ozone between 5 deg S and 10 deg N. Because all of the sources of carbon monoxide are located in the troposphere, this finding likewise suggests that the gradients of total ozone at low latitudes must also reflect processes occurring in the troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 14451-14
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: First results for diurnal cycles derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment are presented for the combined Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and NOAA-9 spacecraft for April 1985. Regional scale longwave radiation data are analyzed to determine diurnal variations for the total scene (including clouds) and for clear-sky conditions. The longwave diurnal range was found to be greatest for clear desert regions (up to about 70 W/sq m) and smallest for clear oceans (less than 5 W/sq m). Local time of maximum longwave radiation occurs at a wide range of times throughout the day and night over oceans, but generally occurs from noon to early afternoon over land and desert regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 69; 1144-115
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