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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cronin, M. F., Gentemann, C. L., Edson, J., Ueki, I., Bourassa, M., Brown, S., Clayson, C. A., Fairall, C. W., Farrar, J. T., Gille, S. T., Gulev, S., Josey, S. A., Kato, S., Katsumata, M., Kent, E., Krug, M., Minnett, P. J., Parfitt, R., Pinker, R. T., Stackhouse, P. W., Jr., Swart, S., Tomita, H., Vandemark, D., Weller, R. A., Yoneyama, K., Yu, L., & Zhang, D. Air-sea fluxes with a focus on heat and momentum. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 430, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00430.
    Description: Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the global, ice-free ocean with breakthrough 1-day random uncertainty of 15 W m–2 and a bias of less than 5 W m–2. At present this accuracy target is met only for OceanSITES reference station moorings and research vessels (RVs) that follow best practices. To meet these targets globally, in the next decade, satellite-based observations must be optimized for boundary layer measurements of air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind stress. In order to tune and validate these satellite measurements, a complementary global in situ flux array, built around an expanded OceanSITES network of time series reference station moorings, is also needed. The array would include 500–1000 measurement platforms, including autonomous surface vehicles, moored and drifting buoys, RVs, the existing OceanSITES network of 22 flux sites, and new OceanSITES expanded in 19 key regions. This array would be globally distributed, with 1–3 measurement platforms in each nominal 10° by 10° box. These improved moisture and temperature profiles and surface data, if assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, would lead to better representation of cloud formation processes, improving state variables and surface radiative and turbulent fluxes from these models. The in situ flux array provides globally distributed measurements and metrics for satellite algorithm development, product validation, and for improving satellite-based, NWP and blended flux products. In addition, some of these flux platforms will also measure direct turbulent fluxes, which can be used to improve algorithms for computation of air-sea exchange of heat and momentum in flux products and models. With these improved air-sea fluxes, the ocean’s influence on the atmosphere will be better quantified and lead to improved long-term weather forecasts, seasonal-interannual-decadal climate predictions, and regional climate projections.
    Description: EK was funded by the NERC CLASS Program (NE/R015953/1). CLG was funded by NASA grant 80NSSC18K0837. SG was funded by MEGAGRANT P220 program (#14.W03.31.0006).
    Keywords: air-sea heat flux ; latent heat flux ; surface radiation ; ocean wind stress ; autonomous surface vehicle ; OceanSITES ; ICOADS ; satellite-based ocean monitoring system
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-11-15
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Centurioni, L. R., Turton, J., Lumpkin, R., Braasch, L., Brassington, G., Chao, Y., Charpentier, E., Chen, Z., Corlett, G., Dohan, K., Donlon, C., Gallage, C., Hormann, V., Ignatov, A., Ingleby, B., Jensen, R., Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A., Koszalka, I. M., Lin, X., Lindstrom, E., Maximenko, N., Merchant, C. J., Minnett, P., O'Carroll, A., Paluszkiewicz, T., Poli, P., Poulain, P., Reverdin, G., Sun, X., Swail, V., Thurston, S., Wu, L., Yu, L., Wang, B., & Zhang, D. Global in situ observations of essential climate and ocean variables at the air-sea interface. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 419, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00419.
    Description: The air–sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air–sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster mitigation. Such estimates and forecasts rely on accurate and integrated in situ and satellite surface observations. High-impact uses of ocean surface observations of essential ocean/climate variables (EOVs/ECVs) include (1) assimilation into/validation of weather, ocean, and climate forecast models to improve their skill, impact, and value; (2) ocean physics studies (i.e., heat, momentum, freshwater, and biogeochemical air–sea fluxes) to further our understanding and parameterization of air–sea processes; and (3) calibration and validation of satellite ocean products (i.e., currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, ocean color, wind, and waves). We review strengths and limitations, impacts, and sustainability of in situ ocean surface observations of several ECVs and EOVs. We draw a 10-year vision of the global ocean surface observing network for improved synergy and integration with other observing systems (e.g., satellites), for modeling/forecast efforts, and for a better ocean observing governance. The context is both the applications listed above and the guidelines of frameworks such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) (both co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC–UNESCO; the World Meteorological Organization, WMO; the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP; and the International Science Council, ISC). Networks of multiparametric platforms, such as the global drifter array, offer opportunities for new and improved in situ observations. Advances in sensor technology (e.g., low-cost wave sensors), high-throughput communications, evolving cyberinfrastructures, and data information systems with potential to improve the scope, efficiency, integration, and sustainability of the ocean surface observing system are explored.
    Description: LC, LB, and VH were supported by NOAA grant NA15OAR4320071 and ONR grant N00014-17-1-2517. RL was supported by NOAA/AOML and NOAA’s Ocean Observation and Monitoring Division. NM was partly supported by NASA grant NNX17AH43G. IK was supported by the Nordic Seas Eddy Exchanges (NorSEE) funded by the Norwegian Research Council (Grant 221780). DZ was partly funded by the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA15OAR4320063. RJ was supported by the USACE’s Civil Works 096×3123.
    Keywords: global in situ observations ; air-sea interface ; essential climate and ocean variables ; climate variability and change ; weather forecasting ; SVP drifters
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58 (2011): 753-763, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.015.
    Description: The SOLAS air-sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) was a multiple-objective study investigating gas-transfer processes and the influence of iron fertilisation on biologically driven gas exchange in high-nitrate low-silicic acid low-chlorophyll (HNLSiLC) Sub-Antarctic waters characteristic of the expansive Subpolar Zone of the southern oceans. This paper provides a general introduction and summary of the main experimental findings. The release site was selected from a pre-voyage desktop study of environmental parameters to be in the south-west Bounty Trough (46.5°S 172.5°E) to the south-east of New Zealand and the experiment conducted between mid-March and mid-April 2004. In common with other mesoscale iron addition experiments (FeAX’s), SAGE was designed as a Lagrangian study quantifying key biological and physical drivers influencing the air-sea gas exchange processes of CO2, DMS and other biogenic gases associated with an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom. A dual tracer SF6/3He release enabled quantification of both the lateral evolution of a labelled volume (patch) of ocean and the air-sea tracer exchange at the 10’s of km’s scale, in conjunction with the iron fertilisation. Estimates from the dual-tracer experiment found a quadratic dependency of the gas exchange coefficient on windspeed that is widely applicable and describes air-sea gas exchange in strong wind regimes. Within the patch, local and micrometeorological gas exchange process studies (100 m scale) and physical variables such as near-surface turbulence, temperature microstructure at the interface, wave properties, and wind speed were quantified to further assist the development of gas exchange models for high-wind environments. There was a significant increase in the photosynthetic competence (Fv/Fm) of resident phytoplankton within the first day following iron addition, but in contrast to other FeAX’s, rates of net primary production and column-integrated chlorophyll a concentrations had only doubled relative to the unfertilised surrounding waters by the end of the experiment. After 15 days and four iron additions totalling 1.1 tonne Fe2+, this was a very modest response compared to the other mesoscale iron enrichment experiments. An investigation of the factors limiting bloom development considered co- limitation by light and other nutrients, the phytoplankton seed-stock and grazing regulation. Whilst incident light levels and the initial Si:N ratio were the lowest recorded in all FeAX’s to date, there was only a small seed-stock of diatoms (less than 1% of biomass) and the main response to iron addition was by the picophytoplankton. A high rate of dilution of the fertilised patch relative to phytoplankton growth rate, the greater than expected depth of the surface mixed layer and microzooplankton grazing were all considered as factors that prevented significant biomass accumulation. In line with the limited response, the enhanced biological draw-down of pCO2 was small and masked by a general increase in pCO2 due to mixing with higher pCO2 waters. The DMS precursor DMSP was kept in check through grazing activity and in contrast to most FeAX’s dissolved dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentration declined through the experiment. SAGE is an important low-end member in the range of responses to iron addition in FeAX’s. In the context of iron fertilisation as a geoengineering tool for atmospheric CO2 removal, SAGE has clearly demonstrated that a significant proportion of the low iron ocean may not produce a phytoplankton bloom in response to iron addition.
    Description: SAGE was jointly funded through the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (FRST) programs (C01X0204) "Drivers and Mitigation of Global Change" and (C01X0223) "Ocean Ecosystems: Their Contribution to NZ Marine Productivity." Funding was also provided for specific collaborations by the US National Science Foundation from grants OCE-0326814 (Ward), OCE-0327779 (Ho), and OCE 0327188 OCE-0326814 (Minnett) and the UK Natural Environment Research Council NER/B/S/2003/00282 (Archer). The New Zealand International Science and Technology (ISAT) linkages fund provided additional funding (Archer and Ziolkowski), and the many collaborator institutions also provided valuable support.
    Keywords: Air-sea gas exchange ; Iron fertilisation ; Ocean biogeochemistry ; SOLAS
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-12-31
    Description: Inflow of Atlantic water (AW) from Fram Strait and the Barents Sea into the Arctic Ocean conditions the intermediate (100–1000 m) waters of the Arctic Ocean Eurasian margins. While over the Siberian margin the Fram Strait AW branch (FSBW) has exhibited continuous dramatic warming beginning in 2004, the tendency of the Barents Sea AW branch (BSBW) has remained poorly known. Here we document the contrary cooling tendency of the BSBW through the analysis of observational data collected from the icebreaker Kapitan Dranitsyn over the continental slope of the Eurasian Basin in 2005 and 2006. The CTD data from the R.V. Polarstern cruise in 1995 were used as a reference point for evaluating external atmospheric and sea-ice forcing and oxygen isotope analysis. Our data show that in 2006 the BSBW core was saltier (by ∼0.037), cooler (by ∼0.41 °C), denser (by ∼0.04 kg/m3), deeper (by 150–200 m), and relatively better ventilated (by 7–8 μmol/kg of dissolved oxygen, or by 1.1–1.7% of saturation) compared with 2005. We hypothesize that the shift of the meridional wind from off-shore to on-shore direction during the BSBW translation through the Barents and northern Kara seas results in longer surface residence time for the BSBW sampled in 2006 compared with samples from 2005. The cooler, more saline, and better-ventilated BSBW sampled in 2006 may result from longer upstream translation through the Barents and northern Kara seas where the BSBW was modified by sea-ice formation and interaction with atmosphere. The data for stable oxygen isotopes from 1995 and 2006 reveals amplified brine modification of the BSBW core sampled downstream in 2006, which supports the assumption of an increased upstream residence time as indicated by wind patterns and dissolved oxygen values.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Institut für Meereskunde Kiel
    In:  Berichte aus dem Institut für Meereskunde an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, 097 (90). Institut für Meereskunde Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 180 pp.
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper introduces a simple method for deriving climatological values of the longwave flux emitted from the clear sky atmosphere to the ice-free ocean surface. It is shown using both theory and data from simulations how the ratio of the surface to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux is a simple function of water vapor (W) and a validation of the simple relationship is presented based on a limited set of surface flux measurements. The rms difference between the retrieved surface fluxes and the simulated surface fluxes is approximately 6 W/sq m. The clear sky column cooling rate of the atmosphere is derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) values of the clear sky TOA flux and the surface flux retrieved using Special Scanning Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements of w together with ERBE clear sky fluxes. The relationship between this column cooling rate, w, and the sea surface temperature (SST) is explored and it is shown how the cooling rate systematically increases as both w and SST increase. The uncertainty implied in these estmates of cooling are approximately +/- 0.2 K/d. The effects of clouds on this longwave cooling are also explored by placing bounds on the possible impact of clouds on the column cooling rate based on certain assumptions about the effect of clouds on the longwave flux to the surface. It is shown how the longwave effects of clouds in a moist atmosphere where the column water vapor exceeds approximately 30 kg/sq m may be estimated from presently available satellite data with an uncertainty estimated to be approximately 0.2 K/d. Based on an approach described in this paper, we show how clouds in these relatively moist regions decrease the column cooling by almost 50% of the clear sky values and the existence of significant longitudinal gradients in column radiative heating across the equatorial and subtropical Pacific Ocean.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D9; p. 18,585-18,604
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-01
    Print ISSN: 2169-9275
    Electronic ISSN: 2169-9291
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1999-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2004-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0739-0572
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0426
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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