Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract In a strong magnetic field, nuclei located over a carbon-carbon double bond experience NMR shielding effects that are the net result of the magnetic anisotropy of the nearby double bond and various other intramolecular shielding effects. We have used GIAO, a subroutine in Gaussian 4, to calculate isotropic shielding values and to predict the proton NMR shielding increment for a simple model system: methane held in various orientations and positions over ethene. The average proton NMR shielding increments of several orientations of methane have been plotted versus the Cartesian coordinates of the methane protons relative to the center of ethene. A single empirical equation for predicting the NMR shielding experienced by protons over a carbon-carbon double bond has been developed from these data. The predictive capability of this equation has been validated by comparing the shielding increments for several alkenes calculated using our equation to the experimentally observed shielding increments. This equation predicts the NMR shielding effects more accurately than a previous model that was based on only one orientation of methane over ethene. Deshielding is predicted by this equation for protons over the center and within about 3 Å of a carbon-carbon double bond. This result is in contrast to predictions made by the long-held “shielding cone” model based on the McConnell equation found in nearly every textbook on NMR, but is consistent with experimental observations.
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