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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A 2.3 kW Breadboard Power Processing Unit (BBPPU) was developed as part of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) Program. The NSTAR program will deliver an electric propulsion system based on a 30 cm xenon ion thruster to the New Millennium (NM) program for use as the primary propulsion system for the initial NM flight. The final development test for the BBPPU, the Functional Integration Test, was carried out to demonstrate all aspects of BBPPU operation with an Engineering Model Thruster. Test objectives included: (1) demonstration and validation of automated thruster start procedures, (2) demonstration of stable closed loop control of the thruster beam current, (3) successful response and recovery to thruster faults, and (4) successful safing of the system during simulated spacecraft faults. These objectives were met over the specified 80-120 VDC input voltage range and 0.5-2.3 output power capability of the BBPPU. Two minor anomalies were noted in discharge and neutralizer keeper current. These anomalies did not affect the stability of the system and were successfully corrected.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: NASA-TM-107305 , E-10392 , NAS 1.15:107305 , AIAA Paper 96-2720 , Joint Propulsion Conference; 1-3 Jul. 1996; Lake Buena Vista, FL; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A 0.5-2.3 kW xenon ion propulsion system is presently being developed under the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program. This propulsion system includes a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster, a Digital Control Interface Unit, a xenon feed system, and a power processing unit (PPU). The PPU consists of the power supply assemblies which operate the thruster neutralizer, main discharge chamber, and ion optics. Also included are recycle logic and a digital microcontroller. The neutralizer and discharge power supplies employ a dual use configuration which combines the functions of two power supplies into one, significantly simplifying the PPU. Further simplification was realized by implementing a single thruster control loop which regulates the beam current via the discharge current. Continuous throttling is possible over a 0.5-2.3 kW output power range. All three power supplies have been fabricated and tested with resistive loads, and have been combined into a single breadboard unit with the recycle logic and microcontroller. All line and load regulation test results show the power supplies to be within the NSTAR flight PPU specified power output of 1.98 kW. The overall efficiency of the PPU, calculated as the combined efficiencies of the power supplies and controller, at 2.3 kW delivered to resistive loads was 0.90. The component was 6.16 kg. Integration testing of the neutralizer and discharge power supplies with a functional model thruster revealed no issues with discharge ignition or steady state operation.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA-TM-107037 , NAS 1.15:107037 , AIAA PAPER 95-2517 , E-9857 , NIPS-95-06124 , Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibition; 10-12 Jul. 1995; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A bidirectional pressure-regulator system has been devised for use in a regenerative fuel cell system. The bidirectional pressure-regulator acts as a back-pressure regulator as gas flows through the bidirectional pressure-regulator in one direction. Later, the flow of gas goes through the regulator in the opposite direction and the bidirectional pressure-regulator operates as a pressure- reducing pressure regulator. In the regenerative fuel cell system, there are two such bidirectional regulators, one for the hydrogen gas and another for the oxygen gas. The flow of gases goes from the regenerative fuel cell system to the gas storage tanks when energy is being stored, and reverses direction, flowing from the storage tanks to the regenerative fuel cell system when the stored energy is being withdrawn from the regenerative fuel cell system. Having a single bidirectional regulator replaces two unidirectional regulators, plumbing, and multiple valves needed to reverse the flow direction. The term "bidirectional" refers to both the bidirectional nature of the gas flows and capability of each pressure regulator to control the pressure on either its upstream or downstream side, regardless of the direction of flow.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: LEW-17548-1 , NASA Tech Briefs, July 2008; 28-29
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0.85. The composite wrap remained tightly bound to the surface of the tank throughout the testing in thermal vacuum conditions.
    Keywords: Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation
    Type: LEW-17666-1 , NASA Tech Briefs, January 2007; 29
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The BOREAS RSS-19 team collected airborne remotely sensed images and ground reflectance data for characterizing the radiometric properties of the boreal forest landscape. One objective of BOREAS is to further the understanding of the spectral bidirectional reflectance of typical boreal ecosystem stands in the visible/near-infrared regime. An essential input for any canopy BRDF model is an accurate estimate of the average understory reflectance, both for sunlit and shaded conditions. These variables can be expected to vary seasonally because of species-dependent differences in the phenological cycle of foliar display. In response to these requirements, the average understory reflectance for the flux tower sites of both the NSA (Thompson, Manitoba) and the SSA (Candle Lake, Saskatchewan) was observed throughout the year during five field campaigns. This was done by measuring the nadir reflectance (400 to 850 nm) of sunlit and shaded understory (vegetation and snow cover) along a surveyed LAI transect line (Chen, RSS-07) at each site near solar noon and documenting an average site reflectance. Comparisons between sites reveal differences in the green and infrared regions of the spectra, because of the differing species in the understory for each site. Temporal (seasonal) variation for each site was also observed (06-Feb-1994 to 16-Sep-1994), indicating the changing flora mixtures and changing spectral signatures as the understory matures during the growing season. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-209891/VOL77 , Rept-2000-03136-0/VOL77 , NAS 1.15:209891/VOL77
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-12-30
    Description: Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from Δ14CO2 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20–30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low RCO:CO2ff of 13 ± 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO2ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0168-1923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2240
    Topics: Geography , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2005-11-01
    Print ISSN: 0168-1923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2240
    Topics: Geography , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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