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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: P/V curve ; Picea abies ; Aerial uptake ; Bark permeability ; Mass flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Uptake of water and magnesium chloride solution was investigated through the outer surface of twigs of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Water uptake was determined by using pressure/volume (P/V) curves of the twigs as a basis for calculation to avoid problems of superficial extraneous water. When water was sprayed on bark and needles of 3- to 7-year-old twigs at a xylem water potential of -1.00 MPa, they absorbed as much as 80 mm3 water in 200 min/g twig dry weight as the twig water potential recovered to -0.15 MPa. With fluorescent dyes, pathways for absorption of water and solutes through the twig bark were found, particularly through the radially orientated ray tissue. In addition to uptake by mass flow, magnesium could also diffuse along a concentration gradient from the twig surface into the xylem. In the field, the magnitude of these uptake processes would depend on the concentration of elements deposited by atmospheric precipitation, the concentration gradient between the plant surface and the xylem sap, the xylem water potential and the intensity and duration of each precipitation event.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 205 (1965), S. 306-307 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Coleus is particularly suitable for an investigation of this kind because the main vascular bundles are situated at the angles of the square stem. We used CaldwelFs split root technique on Coleus frederici. Cuttings were taken and a fortnight later the rooted stumps were carefully split from the ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 8 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Ricinus communis plants have an unusually high capacity to exude considerable quantities of phloem sap from bark incisions. We have used Ricinus as an experimental system to study different aspects of sap exudation. Dimensional changes in the bark, monitored by a displacement transducer, showed that pressure release in the sieve tubes was accompanied by elastic shrinkage. The rate of exudation was also controlled by the degree of pressurization and elastic properties of the sieve tubes. A displacement transducer was used to measure the elastic modulus (ɛ) of phloem samples by immersing them in a range of different osmotica. The cells had a low elastic modulus (ɛ= 1.62 ± 0.41 MPa at full turgor). ɛ of phloem tissue in massage pretreated bark, from which exudation was enhanced, was not significantly different from that of unmassaged bark in contrast with the suggestion of Lee (1981). However, anatomical studies showed that massage pretreatment has a stimulating influence on the cambial cell division, which increased the phloem tissue cross-section up to 160%. The newly-formed sieve tubes were ‘spliced’ into existing ones in the unmassaged zone to re-establish vascular continuity. Plants with a greater capacity to exude phloem sap from a given stem location had a greater cross-sectional area of sieve tubes in the vicinity.The significance of observations with respect to other sap exudation phenomenon is discussed. The importance of the present work in understanding the technique of palm tapping, on which the palm sugar industry depends, is also considered.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Phloem exudation from Ricinus has been examined in plants subjected to changes in water balance induced by a number of means. The results have provided a clear demonstration that the phloem system can operate osmotically. When the availability of water in the xylem is reduced by withholding water, the rate of exudation decreases sharply and this is accompanied by a rise in the sap concentration. On removing the water stress, the rate increases rapidly with a corresponding fall in sap concentration. Small variations in water availability do not give significant results and may be buffered by responses from the plant itself. This could also explain the insignificant changes in sap composition during exudation previously reported, where exudation rate, which should bear some relation to sieve tube turgor pressure, seems independent of sap concentration. Fluctuations in exudation rate are large in comparison with the changes in sap concentration when severe water stresses are applied. This result, coupled with the observation that exudation will occur from plants under considerable water stress suggests the operation of a “sugar pump” capable of maintaining a high turgor pressure at the source against a considerable water potential gradient. The main “pump” is probably located in the leaves. Thus interpreted, the results seem to accord with the Münch pressure flow hypothesis in all significant aspects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Acoustic detector ; Cavitation ; Sap tension ; Xylem sap
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 100 (1971), S. 200-207 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Exudate can be obtained from incisions made in the bark of the stem of actively growing Ricinus plants. 14C-labelled assimilates from a fed leaf are rapidly detected in the exudate. This movement was both acropetal and basipetal from the fed leaf, at rates of over 100 cm h-1. Estimated rates within intact plants were 80–84 cm h-1. In contrast with xylem sap obtained from the same plant, the exudate obtained had an alkaline pH (8.2), a high dry matter content (10–12.5%), high sugar content (8–10%) which was predominantly sucrose; high potassium content (60–80 mM) and low calcium content (0.5–1.0 mM). It is concluded, on the basis of the present evidence, that the exudate is a true sample of the sieve tube sap undergoing translocation.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-04
    Description: The Caltech HIgh-speed Multi-colour camERA (CHIMERA) is a new instrument that has been developed for use at the prime focus of the Hale 200-inch telescope. Simultaneous optical imaging in two bands is enabled by a dichroic beam splitter centred at 567 nm, with Sloan u ' and g ' bands available on the blue arm and Sloan r ', i ' and z_s bands available on the red arm. Additional narrow-band filters will also become available as required. An electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector is employed for both optical channels, each capable of simultaneously delivering sub-electron effective read noise under multiplication gain and frame rates of up to 26 fps full frame (several 1000 fps windowed), over a fully corrected 5 x 5 arcmin field of view. CHIMERA was primarily developed to enable the characterization of the size distribution of sub-km Kuiper Belt Objects via stellar occultation, a science case that motivates the frame-rate, the simultaneous multi-colour imaging and the wide field of view of the instrument. In addition, it also has unique capability in the detection of faint near-Earth asteroids and will be used for the monitoring of short-duration transient and periodic sources, particularly those discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), and the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF).
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
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