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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A novel peptidoglycan-linked lipoprotein (ComL) has been identified which is required for efficient transformation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by species-related DNA. Although most mutations in comL appear to be lethal, transposon shuttle mutagenesis was successful in generating a single viable comL mutant of N. gonorrhoeae strain MS11. This mutant, N457, exhibits a cratered and crinkled colony morphology and grows slower than wild-type MS11. However, as indicated by electron microscopy, this retardation is due to a small bacterial size rather than to a decreased generation time of the mutant bacteria. Complementation of N457 with an intact comL gene via the Hermes shuttle system fully reconstitutes bacterial size, colony morphology, and transformation competence of the wild-type strain. comL is a single-copy gene and maps downstream of the previously described comA gene It is transcribed in the opposite direction, probably using the same transcriptional terminator. ComL has a predicted size of 29 kDa and is synthesized in Escherichia coli under the control of its native promoter, which is highly conserved with the E. coli promoter consensus sequence. The 5′ end of the coding sequence reveals a lipoprotein secretion signal shown to be functional by gene fusion with alkaline phosphatase (phoA′ ). In E. coli, cloned ComL can be labelled with [3H]-palmitic acid, thus demonstrating its lipoproteinaceous nature. Palmitoylated ComL appears to be covalently bound to the murein sacculus of E. coli and N. gonorrhoeae since it resists boiling in 4% sodium dodecyl sulphate and is released only by lysozyme treatment. Homologous counterparts of the comL gene are found in Neisseriameningitidis as well as in several non-pathogenic Neisseria species.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 373 (1995), S. 357-359 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] PilC protein was purified to homogeneity (〉98%) from a gonococcal overproducing PilE-deficient strain (Fig. 1) and used to assess its interaction with various human and non-human cell types. Consistent with the species specificity of neisserial infections, purified PilC bound to human epithelial ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 Sequence of the N. gonorrhoeae MS 11 iga gene. The DNA sequence reveals a single gene of 4,596 bp in association with typical expression signals: a promoter sequence17'19 (positions -43, -35, and -10), a transcription termination signal20 (divergent arrows), and a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Gonococcus ; Folic acid ; Dihydrofolate synthetase ; Folylpolyglutamate synthetase ; One-carbon metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The gene coding for folylpoly-(γ)-glutamate synthetase (FPGS)-dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) has been cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli folC mutant (SF4). The sequence encodes a 224-residue protein of 46.4 kDa. It shows 46% identity to the E. coli FPGS-DHFS and 29% identity to the FPGS of Lactobacillus casei. Sequence comparisons between the three genes reveal regions of high homology, including ATP binding sites required for bifunctionality, all of which may be important for FPGS activity. In contrast to L. casei FPGS, the E. coli and Ngo enzymes share some additional regions which may be essential for DHFS activity. The products of Ngo folC and flanking genes were monitored by T7 promoter expression. Interestingly, deletion of the upstream folI gene, which encodes a 16.5 kDa protein, abolishes the capacity of folC to complement E. coli SF4 to the wild-type phenotype. The ability to complement can be restored by folI provided in trans. Unlike folC mutants, gonococcal folI mutants are viable and display no apparent phenotype. Thus, in contrast to E. coli, Ngo folC is expressed at a sufficiently high level from its own promoter, in the absence of FolI. This study provides the first insights into the genetic complexity of one-carbon metabolism in Ngo.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Signal sequence ; Gene regulation ; Export ; Codon usage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nucleotide sequence of the ompV gene of Vibrio cholerae was determined. The product of the gene is a 28,000 dalton protein which, after the removal of a 19 amino acid signal sequence, produces a mature outer membrane protein of 26,000 daltons. The cleavage site was determined by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified mature protein. The DNA upstream of the gene shows the presence of a typical promoter region as judged from the Escherichia coli consensus information; however, the Shine-Dalgarno sequence is associated with a region capable of forming a secondary structure in the mRNA. The formation of this structure would inhibit binding of the mRNA to the ribosome and reduce translation. It is proposed that this structure is recognized by a positive activator in V. cholerae and because of its absence in E. coli ompV is poorly expressed. The distribution of rare codons within ompV suggests that they may serve to slow down the translation of particular domains such that the nascent polypeptide has an opportunity to take up its conformation without interference from the later formed regions. Such a mechanism could aid localization of the protein if export were by a cotranslational secretion system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Plasmid vector ; Conjugation ; Generalized mutagenesis ; Homologous recombination ; Natural transformation competence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A versatile shuttle system has been developed for genetic complementation with cloned genes of transformable and non-transformableNeisseria mutants. By random insertion of a selectable marker into the conjugativeNeisseria plasmidptetM25.2, a site within this plasmid was identified that is compatible with plasmid replication and with conjugative transfer of plasmid. Regions flanking the permissive insertion site of ptetM25.2 were cloned inEscherichia coli and served as a basis for the construction of the Hermes vectors. Hermes vectors are composed of anE. coli replicon that does not support autonomous replication inNeisseria, e.g. ColE1, p15A, orori fd, fused with a shuttle consisting of a selectable marker and a multiple cloning site flanked by the integration region of ptetM25.2. Complementation of a non-transformableNeisseria strain involves a three-step process: (i) insertion of the desired gene into a Hermes vector; (ii) transformation of Hermes into aNeisseria strain containing ptetM25.2 to create a hybrid ptetM25.2 via gene replacement by the Hermes shuttle cassette; and (iii) conjugative transfer of the hybrid ptetM25.2 into the finalNeisseria recipient. Several applications for the genetic manipulation of pathogenicNeisseriae are described.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Bacteriophage fd gene 2 protein was specifically labeled with radioactive amino acids and was isolated from membranous cell structures as an apparently homogenous protein. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the protein was initiated at two distinct AUG codons close to the ribosome binding site. The two resulting translation products were found to begin with a deformylated methionine residue. Initiation at the first signal was used for 90% of the chains and at the second signal for 10% of the sequenced molecules. The use of one or the other chain start may influence functions of gene 2 protein.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Signal sequence ; Antigenic epitopes ; Outer membrane protein ; Immunogenicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fusion proteins comprising the amino-terminal 99 amino acids of the bacteriophage MS2 replicase and various portions of OmpV a major outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae were expressed in Escherichia coli K12. These fusions were expressed under the control of the PL promoter of bacteriophage λ, and expression was controlled using a cIts repressor. Fusions occurring within the secretory signal sequence of OmpV gave rise to the production of mature OmpV. The efficiency, however, decreased with progressive deletion of the signal sequence within the fusions. The reactivity of various OmpV fusions with antisera raised against purified OmpV and whole bacteria demonstrated the existence of two antigenic domains: one present in the denatured form and another in the membrane-associated form of OmpV. These domains correspond to markedly hydrophilic regions of the protein as would be predicted for surface-exposed epitopes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Several revertible piliation phases have been described for JV. gonorrhoeae: conventional P+ variants; S-variants, which produce a soluble secreted pilin and show intermediate degrees of piliation, and L-variants, which have a tandem duplication in the pilin structural gene and which synthesize an ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 145 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The pathogenic Neisseria have exploited the processes of horizontal DNA transfer and genetic recombination as mechanisms for the generation of extensive protein variation and modulation of gene expression. Localized recombinations have been well documented in members of multigene families as have alterations in short repetitive sequences. Here we report an analysis of the chromosomal structure of a defined lineage of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain MS 11 pilin variants. This study reveals the occurrence of large rearrangements, including the amplification of a 26 kb region and an inversion involving more than a third of the chromosome. Additionally, a restriction site polymorphism that correlates with pilin expression has been observed. These findings highlight the flexibility of the gonococcal genome.
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