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  • 1
    Call number: M 96.0550 ; AWI G6-96-0128
    Description / Table of Contents: A lake, as a body of water, is in continuous interaction with the rocks and soils in its drainage basin, the atmosphere, and surface and groundwaters. Human industrial and agricultural activities introduce new inputs and processes into lake systems. This volume is a selection of ten contributions dealing with diverse aspects of lake systems, including such subjects as the geological controls of lake basins and their histories, mixing and circulation patterns in lakes, gaseous exchange between the water and atmosphere, and human input to lakes through atmospheric precipitation and surficial runoff. This work was written with a dual goal in mind: to serve as a textbook and to provide professionals with in-depth expositions and discussions of the more important aspects of lake systems.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 334 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: 2. ed.
    ISBN: 3540578919
    Classification: A.3.16.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: 1 Global Distribution of Lakes / M. MEYBECK. - 1 Introduction. - 2 Background Material and Approaches to Global Lake Census. - 2.1 Data Used. - 2.2 Approaches to Global Lake Census. - 3 General Laws of Lake Distribution. - 3.1 Lake Density . - 3.2 Limnic Ratio. - 4 Distribution of Lakes of Tectonic Origin. - 5 Lakes of Glacial Origin. - 5.1 Lake Densities. - 5.2 Global Deglaciated Area. - 5.3 Total Number of Glacial Lakes. - 6 Fluvial Lakes. - 7 Global Distribution of Crater Lakes. - 8 Global Distribution of Saline Lakes. - 8.1 Coastal Lagoons. - 8.2 Salinized Lakes due to Evaporation. - 9 Global Lake Distribution. - 9.1 Extrapolation Approach. - 9.2 Lake Type Approach. - 9.3 Climatic Typology Approach. - 9.4 Lake Distribution in Endorheic Areas. - 9.5 Global Dissolved Salt Distribution in Lakes. - 10 Major Changes in Global Lake Distribution in the Geological Past. - 10.1 Lake Ages. - 10.2 Historical Changes. - 10.3 Postglacial Changes. - 11 Discussion and Conclusions. - References. - 2 Hydrological Processes and the Water Budget of Lakes / T. C. WINTER. - 1 Introduction. - 2 Hydrological System with Regard to Lakes. - 2.1 Interaction of Lakes with Atmospheric Water. - 2.2 Interaction of Lakes with Surface Water. - 2.3 Interaction of Lakes with Subsurface Water. - 2.4 Change in Lake Volume. - 3 Summary. - References. - 3 Hydrological and Thermal Response of Lakes to Climate: Description and Modeling / S. W. HOSTETLER. - 1 Introduction. - 2 Hydrological Response. - 3 The Hydrological Budget. - 4 Hydrological Models. - 5 Thermal Response. - 5.1 Energy Budget and Energy Budget Models. - 5.2 Models and Modeling. - 6 Use of Models to Link Lakes with Climate Change. - 7 Input Data Sets. - 8 Sample Applications. - 9 Summary. - References. - 4 Mixing Mechanisms in Lakes / D. M. IMBODEN and A. WÜEST. - 1 Transport and Mixing. - 2 Lakes as Physical Systems. - 3 Fluid Dynamics: Mathematical Description of Advection and Diffusion. - 3.1 Equations of Fluid Motion. - 3.2 Turbulence, Reynolds' Stress, and Eddy Diffusion. - 3.3 Vertical Momentum Equation. - 3.4 Nonlocal Diffusion and Transilient Mixing. - 4 Density and Stability of Water Column. - 4.1 Equation of State of Water. - 4.2 Potential Temperature and Local Vertical Stability. - 5 Energy Fluxes: Driving Forces Behind Transport and Mixing. - 5.1 Thermal Energy. - 5.2 Potential Energy. - 5.3 Kinetic Energy. - 5.4 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Balance in Stratified Water. - 5.5 Internal Turbulent Energy Fluxes: Turbulence Cascade. - 6 Mixing Processes in Lakes. - 6.1 Waves and Mixing. - 6.2 Mixing in the Surface Layer. - 6.3 Diapycnal Mixing. - 6.4 Boundary Mixing. - 6.5 Double Diffusion. - 6.6 Isopycnal Mixing. - 7 Mixing and Its Ecological Relevance. - 7.1 Time Scales of Mixing. - 7.2 Reactive Species and Patchiness. - 7.3 Mixing and Growth: The Search for an Ecological Steering Factor. - References. - 5 Stable Isotopes of Fresh and Saline Lakes / J. R. GAT. - 1 Introduction. - 1.1 Isotope Separatio During Evaporation. - 2 Small-Area Lakes. - 2.1 Seasonal and Annual Changes. - 2.2 Deep Freshwater Lakes. - 2.3 Transient Surface-Water Bodies. - 3 Interactive and Feedback Systems. - 3.1 Network of Surface-Water Bodies. - 3.2 Recycling of Reevaporated Moisture into the Atmosphere. - 3.3 Large Lakes. - 3.4 Large-Area Lakes with Restricted Circulation. - 4 Saline Lakes. - 4.1 Isotope Hydrology of Large Salt Lakes. - 4.2 Ephemeral Salt Lakes and Sabkhas. - 5 Isotopie Paleolimnology. - 6 Conclusions: From Lakes to Oceans. - References. - 6 Exchange of Chemicals Between the Atmosphere and Lakes / P. VLAHOS, D. MACKAY, S. J. EISENREICH, and KC. HORNBUCKLE. - 1 Introduction. - 2 Air-Water Partitioning Equilibria. - 3 Diffusion Between Water and Air. - 4 Volatilization and Absorption: Double-Resistance Approach. - 5 Factors Affecting Mass-Transfer Coefficients. - 6 Partitioning of Chemical to Paniculate Matter in Air and Water. - 6.1 Air. - 6.2 Water. - 7 Atmospheric Deposition Processes. - 7.1 Dry Deposition. - 7.2 Wet Deposition. - 8 Specimen Calculation. - 8.1 Step 1: Physicochemical Properties. - 8.2 Step 2: Mass-Transfer Coefficients. - 8.3 Step 3: Sorption in Air and Water. - 8.4 Step 4: Equilibrium Status. - 8.5 Step 5: Volatilization and Deposition Rates. - 9 Role of Air-Water Exchange in Lake Mass Balances. - 10 Case Studies. - 10.1 Mass Balance on Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale. - 10.2 Mass Balance on Lake Superior. - 10.3 Air-Water Exchange in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. - 10.4 Air-Water Exchange in Lake Superior. - 11 Conclusions. - References. - 7 Atmospheric Depositions: Impact of Acids on Lakes / W. STUMM and J. SCHNOOR. - Abstract. - 1 Introduction: Anthropogenic Generation of Acidity. - 1.1 Genesis of Acid Precipitation. - 2 Acidity and Alkalinity: Neutralizing Capacities. - 2.1 Transfer of Acidity (or Alkalinity) from Pollution Through the Atmosphere to Ecosystems. - 3 Acidification of Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems. - 3.1 Disturbance of H+ Balance from Temporal or Spatial Decoupling of the Production and Mineralization of the Biomass. - 3.2 In Situ H+ Ion Neutralization in Lakes. - 3.3 Krug and Frink Revisited. - 4 Brønsted Acids and Lewis Acids: Pollution by Heavy Metals, as Influenced by Acidity. - 4.1 Cycling of Metals. - 4.2 Pb in Soils. - 5 Impact of Acidity on Ecology in Watersheds. - 5.1 Soils. - 5.2 Lakes. - 5.3 Nitrogen Saturation of Forests. - 6 Critical Loads. - 6.1 Critical Load Maps. - 6.2 Models for Critical Load Evaluation. - 7 Case Studies. - 7.1 Chemical Weathering of Crystalline Rocks in the Catchment Area of Acidic Ticino Lakes, Switzerland. - 7.2 Watershed Manipulation Project at Bear Brooks, Maine. - 8 Summary. - References. - 8 Redox-Driven Cycling of Trace Elements in Lakes / J. HAMILTON-TAYLOR and W. DAVISON. - 1 Introduction. - 2 Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Pathways. - 3 Iron and Manganese. - 3.1 Transformations and Cycling. - 3.2 Iron and Manganese Compounds as Carrier Phases. - 4 Sediment-Water Interface. - 4.1 Diffusive Flux from Sediments. - 4.2 Evidence of Little or No Diffusive Efflux from Sediments. - 4.3 Transient Remobilization. - 4.4 Diffusive Flux into Sediments. - 5 Pathways Involving Redox Reactions Directly: Case Studies. - 5.1 Arsenic. - 5.2 Chromium. - 5.3 239,240Pu. - 5.4 Selenium 6 Pathways Involving Redox Reactions Indirectly: Case Studies. - 6.1 137Cs. - 6.2 Stable Pb, 210Pb, and 210Po. - 6.3 Zinc. - 7 Summary and Conclusions. - References. - 9 Comparative Geochemistry of Marine Saline Lakes / F. T. MACKENZIE, S. VINK, R. WOLLAST, and L. CHOU. - 1 Introduction. - 2 General Characteristics of Marine Saline Lakes. - 3 Comparative Sediment-Pore-Water Reactions. - 3.1 Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. - 3.2 Solar Lake, Sinai. - 4 Conclusions. - References. - 10 Organic Matter Accumulation Records in Lake Sediments / P. A. MEYERS and R. ISHIWATARI. - 1 Introduction. - 1.1 Significance of Organic Matter in Lake Sediments. - 1.2 Origins of Organic Matter to Lake Sediments. - 1.3 Alterations of Organic Matter During Deposition. - 1.4 Similarities and Differences Between Organic Matter in Sediments of Lakes and Oceans. - 1.5 Dating of Lake-Sediment Records. - 2 Indicators of Sources and Alterations of Total Organic Matter in Lake Sediments. - 2.1 Source Information Preserved in C/N Ratios of Sedimentary Organic Matter. - 2.2 Source Information from Carbon-Stable Isotopic Compositions. - 2.3 Source Information from Nitrogen-Stable Isotopic Compositions. - 3 Origin and Alterations of Humic Substances. - 4 Sources and Alterations of Lipid Biomarkers. - 4.1 Alteration of Lipids During Deposition. - 4.2 Changes in Sources vs Selective Diagenesis. - 4.3 Effects of Sediment Grain Size on Geolipid Compositions. - 4.4 Source Records of Alkanes in Lake Sediments. - 4.5 Preserv
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The determination of the natural radioelements in suspended matter in rivers and estuaries, lead to a simple relation between gamma activity and turbidity T, such as Nt=aTb (Nt counting rate caused by turbidity, a and b experimental coefficients). A new turbidimetry method is based on this relation and discussed here. In situ measurements have been conducted with field gamma scintillometers and compared with different turbidimetry methods, such as nephelometry, gravi-metry and gamma ray absorptiometry. This method has been particularly convenient to continuous in situ measurements of turbidity from 0.5 g to several hundreds of g/1. This broad range is very well adapted to turbidity studies in estuaries.The new method has been applied to study suspended matter dynamics in the Gironde estuary (France) during November 1968, as a part of a more general study of natural radioactivity in terrigenous sediments brought into the ocean.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Earth and Planetary Science Letters 11 (1971), S. 407-414 
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9055
    Keywords: Bottom waters ; lake dynamics ; dissolved oxygen ; silica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Regular surveys of bottom water chemistry (SiO2, O2, Fe, Mn) have been carried from 1978 to 1986 in the deepest 30 m of Lake Léman (max. depth 309 m) including interface waters sampled with a Jenkins Mortimer corer. When compared to normal chemical gradients near bottom, i.e. O2 decrease and SiO2 increase, three types of anomalies (lens, interface, and behaviour) have been observed on O2 and SiO2, the most sensitive chemical species. These anomalies were found throughout the year, in several stations of the deepest part of the lake and even along the slope of the lake basin. Major anomalies (ΔO2 + 3 to 10 mg ·l−1; ΔSiO2 -1 to 2 mg·l−1) were generally found at the sediment water interface and may extend 10–20 m above the sediment and last 10 weeks. Others marked lens anomalies could be observed for 3 to 4 months. Several mechanisms are probably responsible for this injection of surface waters along the lake slope (accumulation of turbid water on lake banks after severe windstorms; river density currents due to temperature and/or turbidity difference with lake waters). These water-inputs do not represent important volumes (≤ 1% total lake volume) but, when occuring at the interface, they ensure a sufficient oxygen level to prevent diffusion of phosphate and ammonia from pore waters when winter lake overturns do not reach bottom layers (from 1972 to 1980). Complete overturns, as observed in 1980/81, are connected with major interface anomalies (bottom O2 moves up from 2 to 10 mg·l−1) occuring before surface mixing reaches the deepest layers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 255 (1975), S. 134-136 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] At this station the basin area is 663,000 km2, 83% of the total drainage area, and mean annual discharge is 14,900 m3 s"-1. Between January 1961 and December 1962, 546 daily samples were taken in which temperature, pH and conductivity were measured. The river was at that time affected little by war ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Total Suspended Solids ; space variability ; statistical distribution ; Seine river
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We analyze the TSS distribution over the whole Seine basin (67 500 km2, stream order 8) from: 1. a set of 236 stations sampled quaterly to bimonthly from the french national water quality monitoring network over the 1971–1997 period, 2. four stations sampled daily over 3 and 4 years located on stream orders 1, 5, 6 and 8, 3. a weekly survey of the exceptional 1994/95 high water stage at 4 stations upstream and downstream of Greater Paris (10 M. people). Due to very low relief and even rainfall distribution over the year, the Seine and its river network from order 3 to 8, are characterized by very low TSS: 79% of medians (C50%) are between 8 and 32 mg l-1 and maximum TSS barely reach 300 mg l-1. Due to similar relief distributions, runoff patterns and geology in all sub-basins, major tributaries have near-identical long-term TSS regimes and seasonal variations during the 1994/95 flood stage. Second order TSS variations are linked to lithology: streams draining argillaceous and marl terrains are up to 3 and 4 times more turbid than those draining limestones and chalks. Basin size was also tested: the TSS range (quantiles C1% to C99%) decreases from order 1 to 8, and quantiles levels C10% to C75% double from order 3 to 8. Human impacts on TSS levels are quite limited: Greater Paris influence on longitudinal profiles is not observed; in periurban streams, where population density reach 1000 p km-2, TSS levels are twice those observed in rural conditions (40 p km-2): C75% are 32 ± 12 and 17.5 ± 9 mg l-1, respectively. In orders 6 to 8, the lower TSS quantiles (C10% and C25%) are higher than in orders 3 – 5, this can be attributed to eutrophication and/or to an important fluvial traffic. No significant trend was observed on the TSS distributions at the river mouth from 1971 to 1997. Comparison with a previous daily survey in 1863–1866 showed present marked decrease of average TSS and TSS yearly range attributed mostly to locks.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-09-21
    Type: paper
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/vnd.ms-excel
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2007-06-20
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2007-11-16
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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