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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0956
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The use of simple photographic cameras on early Shuttle missions allowed spacecraft glow to be clearly identified, and its potential for the contamination of weak atmospheric emissions to be estimated. Since those early flights the equipment has been extensively modified so that it is now possible to obtain images with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The early Shuttle glow observations are reviewed and the use of spatially scanned filters to obtain spectral results is described. These glow measurements are discussed in terms of some current ideas for vehicle induced glows and it is suggested that the glow intensity may be controlled by the temperature of the glowing surface. An example of an atmospheric image obtained with the interference filter camera is presented and the limitations in the use of such images are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 426 (2003), S. 533-537 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The most important process that allows solar-wind plasma to cross the magnetopause and enter Earth's magnetosphere is the merging between solar-wind and terrestrial magnetic fields of opposite sense—magnetic reconnection. It is at present not known whether reconnection can happen in ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THERE are considerable advantages to be obtained by using a specially designed television camera for the detection of faint optical images. These advantages arise from the greater quantum sensitivity and the absence of reciprocity failure in the photoelectric effect compared with photography, and ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 323 (1986), S. 519-522 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Laboratory observations of the heterogeneous recombination of oxygen atoms have shown that the molecular yield is a function of temperature14 and that the surface reaction with different materials allows the preferential formation of particular excited states of O215. The in-situ recombination of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-04-18
    Description: [1]  Localized, transient polar cap flows impinging on the poleward boundary of the nightside auroral oval have been suggested to precede poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs), which are often followed by auroral streamers, some of which propagate equatorward and appear to lead to substorm auroral onset. While echo coverage often limits radar flow measurements, imaging of polar cap patches and arcs has the potential to monitor localized polar cap flows by tracing emission structures, previously associated with enhanced flows, over long distances. We use such imaging to examine if polar cap patches and arcs moving over large distances can be seen as possible precursors to pre-substorm-onset PBIs. We find evidence that such features, which are longitudinally narrow, propagate from the dayside polar region toward the nightside polar cap boundary prior to pre-onset PBIs. This sequence indicates that transient activity in the dayside polar region may initiate polar cap patches and arcs that propagate across the polar cap and are followed by pre-onset PBIs. Furthermore, we find evidence that expansion-phase active aurora expanded poleward soon after additional polar cap patches and arcs reached close to the nightside polar cap boundary. The expansion phase auroral activity significantly weakened when polar cap patches/arcs disappeared. Our findings suggest that plasma transport originating from the dayside and reaching the nightside open-closed boundary may trigger in plasma sheet flow bursts and play a crucial role in pre- and post-onset auroral activity. Polar cap imaging offers the possibility for monitoring such localized, transient plasma transport over large distances.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The glow on ram surfaces of the Space Shuttle has been reported from a series of photographic observations made during several orbiter missions. These measurements have shown that the spectrum of the glow is a continuum, has a spectral peak at 680 nm, and the brightness decreases with altitude. The spectrum has been tentatively identified as the nitrogen dioxide continuum and follows the interaction of adsorbed nitric oxide with ramming atmospheric oxygen. In this paper the variation of the glow brightness among several different Shuttle flights is reexamined and it is shown that a major contributing factor to glow brightness is probably the temperature of the rammed surface. The derived temperature dependence is also consistent with the Atmospheric Explorer-C satellite 'red' glow intensity data.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 323; 519
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets (ISSN 0022-4650); 23; 189-193
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An experiment was operated on several Space Shuttle missions to provide spatial and spectral distributions of a ram glow associated with the Orbiter. The most recent data featured resolved spectrum and imagery of the glow with spectroscopic resolution of 34 A FWHM between 4000 and 8000 A. The spectrum of the glow on the Shuttle tail pod could be clearly separated from spectrum of the reflected light from the Orbiter. Analysis and comparison have been performed which strongly suggest the emission originates from recombination continuum of NO2. Both fast recombination (high temperature) and the spectral dependence in lifetime can describe the spectral difference. If the recombined NO2 retains 25 percent of the kinetic energy of the ram OI, the thickness of the glow layer can be explained by the lifetime of NO2 (2B1) recombination emission.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 12; 97-100
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Radiation resulting from interaction between the effluent cloud of a space shuttle thruster and the ambient atmosphere was observed with a spectograph aboard the shutttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolutoion of 3 nm. The primary emissions are identified as NO2, HNO, O(1)D, and O(1)S. These are the first observations od O(1)S emission in the shuttle plume. These data are compared with the previous measurements, and possible excitation mechanisms are discussed. The results are also compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of thruster plume-atmosphere interaction radiation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5819-5825
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The glowing cloud near the ram surfaces of the Space Shuttle was observed with a hand-held, intensified spectrograph operated by the astronauts from the aft-flight-deck of the Space Shuttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolution of 3 nm. Analysis of the spectral response of the instrument and the transmission of the Shuttle window was performed on orbit using earth-airglow OH Meinel bands. This analysis resulted in a correction of the Shuttle glow intensity in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm. The data presented in this report is in better agreement with laboratory measurements of the NO2 continuum.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 19; 12, J
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