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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Plasma heating due to the ion acoustic instability and the modified two-stream instability is examined for quasi-perpendicular subcritical shocks. Electron and ion heating is investigated as a function of upstream electron to ion temperature ratio and plasma beta using second-order heating rates. A simple shock model is employed in which the cross-field electron-ion drift speed is adjusted until the total (adiabatic plus anomalous) heating matches that required by the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Quantities such as the width of the shock and the maximum electric field fluctuations are also calculated, and the results are compared with the ISEE data set of subcritical bow shock crossings. The observed width of the shock, the amount of plasma heating, and the low-frequency electric field intensity are in reasonably good agreement with the calculations for the modified two-stream instability. On the other hand, the wave intensities at higher frequency are about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those predicted for the ion acoustic instability at saturation, consistent with the fact that the measured shock widths imply cross-field drift speeds that are below threshold for this instability. It is therefore concluded that the dissipation at these shocks is most likely due to the lowest frequency, modified two-stream instability.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 4411-442
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R(S) perihelion solar polar orbit to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system - the solar corona. Using a payload of 12 scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the sun and in the inner heliosphere.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Plasma wave profiles of bow shock crossings at ion acoustic frequencies exhibit 'feet' or 'pedestals', just as magnetic field profiles do. These ion-acoustic feet, consisting of increases in ion wave amplitude over background, are observed in front of virtually all quasi-perpendicular shocks, regardless of Mach number, but are closely associated with magnetic feet and reflected ions circulating around the ambient upstream field at supercritical shocks. Observed gyroradii of the reflected ions have been found to be commensurate with the thicknesses of the magnetic feet, which consist of increases in average field magnitude just outside the main shock ramps in front of supercritical shocks. Estimated scale lengths (gyroradii) of reflected protons are proportional to the thicknesses of acoustic wave feet in all cases, indicating that such protons are probably universally present at subcritical as well as supercritical shocks, although the protons are observed only sporadically because of instrumental limitations. The mere presence or absence of reflected ions in front of a shock may therefore be an insufficient diagnostic of the shock's status with respect to criticality and ion dissipation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 4730-473
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: This report presents a characterization of plasma wave noise in the range of the lower hybrid frequency associated with 65 crossings of earth's bow shock observed by the ISEE 1 and 2 satellites. Wave growth generally becomes detectable at the upstream edge of the shock foot, increases at the upstream edge of the shock ramp, peaks within the ramp, and then quickly decays to steady downstream values. The upstream extent of the noise is on the same order as that of specularly reflected gyrating ions. Similar profiles were observed in subcritical and supercritical shocks, and no special behavior was associated with the first critical Mach number. Spectra in the foot and ramp were similar in shape, although the noise was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more intense in the shock ramps than in the feet. Electric field intensities are positively correlated with solar wind speed and inversely related to electron beta and Mach number. Magnetic components are positively correlated with Mach number and beta. The results are generally consistent with suggestions that the noise consists of lower hybrid waves driven by reflected gyrating ions in the foot, and by additional instabilities, such as the cross-field current, in the shock ramp.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 9695-970
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Observations of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) made with the Dynamics Explorer (DE-1) indicate the presence of both ordinary and extraordinary wave modes. Although the two modes usually occur separately, they are sometimes observed together. When both modes are present, the ordinary-mode component tends to occur at lower frequencies and with lower amplitudes than those of the accompanying extraordinary-mode component. On the other hand, the local electron gyrofrequency is an absolute lower frequency cutoff for both modes. Ordinary mode intensities are proportional to extraordinary mode intensities but less by roughly a factor of 50. Extraordinary mode ray paths are generally confined to a cone within 50 degrees of the source magnetic field direction and ordinary mode emissions are typically observed outside of this cone. This behavior suggests that both components are produced within the same source region but are then refracted differently as they escape.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 11; 1188-119
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The paper reports on two sets of bow shock crossings observed by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 spacecraft, in which very large electron temperature increases were found. When the two sets of shocks with the large electron heating were compared with the rest of the 52 bow shock crossings of the compiled series, these sets were found to correlate with an unusually high upstream solar wind flow speed. The highest correlation was found between the amount of electron heating, expressed by the difference in temperature between the downstream and upstream electrons (rather than their ratio), and the total change in the bulk flow energy per particle across the shock. The results suggest that the appropriate quantity to consider in studies of electron heating at shocks is the temperature difference rather than the temperature ratio. The latter can be artificially elevated by low upstream temperatures.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 10119-10
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The plasma wave instrument on board the DE 1 spacecraft has observed several intervals of auroral kilometric radiation during which harmonic structure is clearly present. The paper presents evidence, some of which is based on unique capabilities of the DE instrument, which argues strongly that the harmonic structures are natural rather than instrumental in origin. The harmonic emissions occur infrequently, but when present may persist for intervals of up to an hour. The emissions are relatively narrow band and consist of a relatively weak fundamental accompanied by an even weaker second harmonic. The ratio of power in the fundamental band to the power in the harmonic ranges from 10 to 100. In all cases, polarization data indicate that the fundamental is a left-hand ordinary (L-O) mode emission while the harmonic is right-hand extraordinary (R-X) mode. These observations are consistent with predictions based on the cyclotron maser mechanism.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AD-A176653 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 13732-13
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Observations of the plasma waves associated with collisionless shocks are reviewed, and the understanding of their generation mechanisms and their importance to shock physics are summarized. The emphasis is on waves generated directly at the shock, especially ion acoustic and lower-hybrid-like modes. The observations are discussed in the context of shock structure, with attention given to the distinctions between waves generated in the shock foot and ramp. The behavior of resistive, dispersive, and supercritical quasi-perpendicular shocks is contrasted. Evidence for the operation of various generation mechanisms, including interactions with cross-field currents, gyrating reflected ions, and field-aligned electron beams, are summarized. The various forms of plasma heating which are actually observed are outlined, and the role of the various wave modes in this heating is discussed. Conclusion, it is argued that, while plasma wave turbulence may play a vital role in plasma heating for some special shocks, it is of second-order importance in most cases.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 6; 1 19
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The ISEE 1 and 2 magnetometer and solar wind data for about 65 quasi-perpendicular bow shocks were used to investigate the role played by low-frequency turbulence in the determination of magnetic field overshoots in collisionless shock waves. Overshoots calculated from both high-resolution data and data averaged to eliminate the effects of turbulence exhibited similar behavior, but the overshoots calculated from the averaged data were generally lower by a factor of 2. Moreover, the size of overshoots calculated from the high-resolution data increased much more strongly with Mach number than that of overshoots calculated from averaged data. The difference between overshoots measured by the two sets of data was generally consistent with the presence of a component of overshoot magnitude due to low-frequecy turbulence.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 13661-13
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft magnetic field data are used to determine the scale lengths of various elements of shock structure, as well as wavelengths and wave polarizations, in a study of structural elements which include shock ramps and precursor wave trains over a series of oblique, low Mach number terrestrial bow shocks. Dissipative processes are reflected in the damping of the precursors, and dissipative scale lengths are of 200-800 km, or several times greater than shock thicknesses. The source of dissipation in the shocks does not appear to be the wave-wave decay of the whistlers, for which no evidence is found. The interaction of the whistler itself with upstream electrons is suggested as a simple and self-consistent explanation for the observed wave train damping.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 2151-216
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