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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 76-82 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In conjunction with the production of a new film entitled BLEVE Update®2, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) sponsored a series of six Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) tests using 1.893 m3 propane tanks. The purpose of the experiments was to obtain film footage of BLEVEs and to compile test data and documentation that might help to better define failure mechanisms and other important physical processes involved. The experiments included tests with simulated pool fires and tests with liquid and gaseous flame jets. The fill level of each tank was varied for the six experiments. The tanks were instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers in both the liquid and vapor space. This paper describes the test setup and summarizes the data measurements obtained.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper presents an advanced modeling approach which significantly improves predictions of reaction rates and critical data that engineers need to design effective pressure relief systems. Ideally, pressure relief systems are sized exactly for the reaction characteristics of the chemicals in the vessel. However, with many chemicals and chemical mixtures, reaction chemistry is difficult to characterize because the individual components interact in complex ways. Furthermore, the high cost and risk of full-scale reactivity experiments make test data scarce. Chemical engineers bridge this gap in part with small-scale tests and modeling computer codes such as the one developed by the Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS). The comprehensive approach developed in this paper provides a reliable design basis for difficult systems, including highly energetic and nonideal reactions, systems with continuing reactions in piping and containment vessels, and systems where homogeneous bubble collapse caused by rapid depressurization could cause a catastrophic vessel failure. We first examine possible mechanisms for catastrophic vessel failure and associated consequences. Next, we outline a detailed approach for emergency relief system design and reactivity testing.
    Additional Material: 25 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 29-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is a matter of considerable practical importance to recognize metastable, potentially hazardous chemical compositions so that suitable thermal hazard management means can be provided as a part of process safety management. This communication is a report on our evaluation of the oxygen balance criterion as a screening technique for thermal hazard assessment.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 49-60 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper reports on a comprehensive literature search and small scale experimental work on the reaction characteristics of phosphorous trichloride and water. More than 30 tests were conducted, including both closed and open test cells. The water to phosphorus trichloride molar ratio was varied from 1 to 25. When in contact, water and phosphorus trichloride will form two liquid layers with a reaction starting at the interface. The impact of variables on reaction rates including the interface surface area, layer depth, and stirring were investigated experimentally. A reaction rate model that fits all the measured data is presented. Case studies illustrating the use of this data for emergency relief systems and vent containment design are presented in reference. [1].
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 168-172 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: There is considerable interest in means for predicting reactivity hazard potential from chemical structure. Such means are intended to provide measures of the likelihood that a given chemical composition can undergo rapid self-reaction, i.e., that it can detonate or deflagrate. The means to be discussed are most useful in predicting behavior under unconfined conditions. As they are computational in nature, they can be deployed quickly and easily to wide ranges of compositions, whether or not these have ever been made. Comparison with better-known compositions is facilitated and can provide additional guidance.In this paper we provide critical reviews of some commonly used hazard evaluation systems, including the oxygen balance system, and ASTM CHETAH. We also provide a review of our recent studies aimed at the development of more powerful screening systems.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 185-197 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) Users Group awarded Arthur D. Little, Inc., a contract to provide the next generation computer program for emergency relief system and effluent handling designs.The new computer program, SuperChems for DIERS, is a dynamic simulator, capable of performing emergency relief system and effluent handling designs for complex geometries and multiphase reaction systems. In addition, SuperChems for DIERS is an equation-of-state based program which provides several benefits over existing non-equation-of-state based methods for systems involving supercritical reactions like polymerizationsof butadiene and acrylonitrile, solution effects such as HCl/Water, and a priori determination of phase splitting.This new computer program allows the user to dynamically simulate several common configurations for vent containment design. For example, the user is able to simulate a vessel discharging a two-phase mixture into a quench/vent where the catch/vent tank will vent to a stack or a scrubber. Unit operations available include separators (horizontal and vertical), cyclones, etc. The impact of back pressure and continuing reaction in the vent containment system is accounted for in the dynamic simulations.
    Additional Material: 28 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 203-218 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a general method for the estimation of flammability envelopes for chemical mixtures based on chemical equilibrium. The impact of mixture initial temperature, the presence of diluents and elevated system pressures are implicitly accounted for. The performance of this method is tested against much of the experimental data reported in the literature for systems containing a wide range of chemicals from CHNO compounds to compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus, silicon and halogens.This method presents a very useful and accurate approach for assessing the flammability envelopes of mixtures where no experimental data is available, and to guide experimental flammability testing work.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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