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  • 1
    Call number: ZS-017(21)
    In: Berichte des IGB
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 202 S. , graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Berichte des IGB 21
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Systematic comparisons of the ecology between functionally similar fish species from freshwater and marine aquatic systems are surprisingly rare. Here, we discuss commonalities and differences in evolutionary history, population genetics, reproduction and life history, ecological interactions, behavioural ecology and physiological ecology of temperate and Arctic freshwater coregonids (vendace and ciscoes, Coregonus spp.) and marine clupeids (herring, Clupea harengus, and sprat, Sprattus sprattus). We further elucidate potential effects of climate warming on these groups of fish based on the ecological features of coregonids and clupeids documented in the previous parts of the review. These freshwater and marine fishes share a surprisingly high number of similarities. Both groups are relatively short-lived, pelagic planktivorous fishes. The genetic differentiation of local populations is weak and seems to be in part correlated to an astonishing variability of spawning times. The discrete thermal window of each species influences habitat use, diel vertical migrations and supposedly also life history variations. Complex life cycles and preference for cool or cold water make all species vulnerable to the effects of global warming. It is suggested that future research on the functional interdependence between spawning time, life history characteristics, thermal windows and genetic differentiation may profit from a systematic comparison of the patterns found in either coregonids or clupeids.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Previous comparative analyses of fish communities in European lakes have mainly focused on the response of community composition to eutrophication. In addition, frequently only one or two lake habitats have been sampled.2. Here, we present fish community data from 67 lakes in north-east Germany. Fish abundance was estimated in littoral, benthic and pelagic habitats from which a composite parameter indicating lake-wide relative species abundances was derived. This parameter was used in group comparisons and non-metric ordination procedures to explore, among 40 lake habitat descriptors sampled, those most important in structuring community composition.3. Fish community composition was mainly determined by maximum and mean depth, chlorophyll a content and lake volume. The impact of anthropogenic alterations of shore structure and human-use intensity of lakes were of minor importance. The dominant fish species were vendace Coregonus albula, perch Perca fluviatilis, smelt Osmerus eperlanus and several cyprinids (roach Rutilus rutilus, bream Abramis brama, white bream Abramis bjoerkna and bleak Alburnus alburnus).4. A response of relative species abundance to lake productivity could be demonstrated for small perch, ruffe and bream. However, when the relationship between lake morphology and productivity was controlled for, differences in species abundances were not longer attributable to differences in productivity, but to maximum lake depth.5. This suggests that there are two distinct fish community types in Germany, namely the cold-water community with vendace and perch inhabiting deeper lakes, and the warm-water cyprinid community inhabiting more shallow lakes. The previously established conceptual model of a community succession from salmonids through perch to cyprinids with increasing eutrophication is hence not continous, but includes a switch between two lake and fish community types.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Research has often focused on the pelagic areas of lakes; the littoral zone has received less attention. The few studies concerning fish distribution in littoral habitats have concentrated on stands of submersed macrophytes, whereas other littoral habitat types have seldom been investigated.2. This study aimed to predict the occurrence of juvenile fish in several littoral habitats of a shallow lake as a function of food availability, complexity of habitat structure, water depth and substrate. Habitats comprising reed, woody structures, and two open water areas differing in depth were sampled for fish and invertebrate biomasses on two shores, over 6 months and during both daylight and at night.3. The juvenile fish community consisted almost exclusively of 0+ and 1+ roach and perch. There was a strong diel component in habitat use, with a predominant occurrence of fish in complex habitats (mainly woody structures) during the day, and a partial migration towards the open habitats at night, more strongly expressed in roach than in perch.4. The diet of all fish groups was relatively constant over the seasonal cycle, and was independent of habitat. There was a higher degree of planktivory in roach than in perch, but both species fed on benthic macroinvertebrates to a substantial extent.5. According to a logistic regression model, the biomass of potential food organisms in the different habitats had little predictive effect on the spatial distribution of the fish, whereas the structural complexity of the habitats combined with the diel cycle explained about 28% of the occurrence patterns in 0+ and 1+ perch and 1+ roach.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY 1. Piscivore stocking at artificially high densities and fishing are the two common approaches to reduce the amount of planktivorous and benthivorous fish in lake biomanipulation programmes. Both measures have advantages and disadvantages, but their relative efficacy has not previously been directly compared.2. We calculated the average annual catch of roach and bream in a lake undergoing long-term biomanipulation (Feldberger Haussee, Germany) by seining each year between 1992 and 1998. We compared this value with a bioenergetics estimate of annual consumption rates of the dominant cohorts of piscivores, pikeperch and pike, in 1997 and 1998. We also determined species composition and length distribution of prey fish in stomachs of the piscivores.3. Roach was the dominant prey species of both pikeperch and pike, whereas bream was rarely taken by either piscivorous species. Seining removed on average larger specimens of roach than were found in the stomachs of the piscivores.4. Based on stocking densities of the piscivores, published mortality rates, and individual consumption rates, feeding of pikeperch and pike on roach exceeded the manual removal of roach by seining by a factor of 4–15 (biomass) in 1997 and 1998.5. Based on these results, a combination of fishing and piscivore enhancement is recommended. Whereas the stocks of adult roach and bream have to be reduced mainly by fishing, the predation of piscivores should be directed predominantly towards the juvenile zooplanktivorous fish. Therefore, small size-classes of piscivorous fish should be promoted by fisheries management, including stocking and harvest regulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY 1. We used an individual based modelling approach for roach to (i) simulate observed diel habitat shifts between the pelagic and littoral zone of a mesotrophic lake; (ii) analyse the relevance of these habitat shifts for the diet, activity costs and growth of roach; and (iii) quantify the effects of a hypothetical piscivore-mediated (presence of pikeperch) confinement of roach to the littoral zone on roach diet, activity costs and growth.2. The model suggests that in the presence of pikeperch, roach shifts from zooplankton as the primary diet to increased consumption of less nutritious food items such as macrophytes, filamentous algae and detritus.3. The growth of roach between May and October was predicted to be significantly higher in the absence of pikeperch, although the net activity costs were about 60% higher compared with the scenario where pikeperch were present.4. These modelling results provide quantitative information for interpreting diel horizontal migrations of roach as a result from a trade-off between food availability and predation risk in different habitats of a lake.5. Altering the habitat selection mode of planktivorous roach by piscivore stocking has the potential to reduce zooplankton consumption by fish substantially, and could therefore be used as a biomanipulation technique complementing the reduction of zooplanktivorous fish.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY 1. To illustrate advances made in biomanipulation research during the last decade, seven main topics that emerged after the first biomanipulation conference in 1989 are discussed in relation to the papers included in this special issue and the general literature.2. The substantially higher success rates of biomanipulations in shallow as opposed to stratified lakes can be attributed to several positive feedback mechanisms relating mainly to the recovery of submerged macrophytes.3. The role of both nutrient loading and in-lake concentrations in predicting the success of biomanipulations is emphasised and supported by empirically defined threshold values. Nutrient recycling by aquatic organisms (such as fish) can contribute to the bottom-up effects on lake food webs, although the degree can vary greatly among lakes.4. Ontogenetic niche shifts and size-structured interactions particularly of fish populations add to the complexity of lake food webs and make scientifically sound predictions of biomanipulation success more difficult than was previously envisaged.5. Consideration of appropriate temporal and spatial scales in biomanipulation research is crucial to understanding food web effects induced by changes in fish communities. This topic needs to be further developed.6. An appropriate balance between piscivorous, planktivorous and benthivorous fishes is required for long-lasting success of biomanipulations. Recommended proportions and absolute densities of piscivorous fish are currently based on data from only a few biomanipulation experiments and need to be corroborated by additional and quantitative assessments of energy flow through lake food webs.7. Biomanipulation effects in stratified lakes can be sustained in the long term only by continued interventions. Alternate stable states of food web composition probably exist only in shallow lakes, but even here repeated interventions may be needed as long as nutrient inputs remain high.8. Biomanipulation is increasingly used as a lake restoration technique by considering the needs of all lake users (sustainability approach). The combination of water quality management and fisheries management for piscivores with positive effects for both appears to be particularly promising.9. Biomanipulation research has contributed substantially to progress in understanding complex lake food webs, which should in turn promote a higher success rate of future whole-lake biomanipulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. According to previous field studies in the biomanipulated Bautzen reservoir (Germany), a midsummer decline of the dominating zooplankter, Daphnia galeata, was suggested to be initiated by a simultaneous occurrence of low fecundity of the daphnids and a selective feeding of underyearling fish on mature daphnids. The timing of both processes was assumed to be triggered by spring water temperature. However, the field data were not appropriate for testing whether yearly differences in spring warming are strong enough to control the predation rate of underyearling fish on daphnids. 
2. By combining field data on fish growth, feeding and population mortality, the daily uptake of Daphnia by a virtual population of underyearling perch (Perca fluviatilis) was simulated. In addition, the daily predatory mortality of mature daphnids was calculated independently. Scenarios with a warm and a cold spring were compared. Furthermore, the delayed warming of a pelagic zone of a lake versus a littoral one was simulated. Sensitivity of the simulation to changes in five parameters was tested. 
3. In both the warm spring scenario and the littoral warming scenario, more daphnids in general and more mature daphnids in particular were eaten, compared with the cold spring and pelagic scenarios. The predatory mortality of mature daphnids was driven by the increasing gape size of growing fish such that in warmer years the fish reach earlier the size at which they can eat mature daphnids. 
4. The simulation was most sensitive to changes in daily mortality rate of the fish and to the size at maturity of the daphnids. Since at least the fish mortality is also temperature-dependent via the growth rates of fish, the predation rate of perch on D. galeata in Bautzen reservoir is substantially increased during a warm spring. This underlines the assumption that even a slight global warming may have a decisive influence on food web processes due to the fine-scaled patterns of trophic interactions in lakes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. In addition to effects of direct predation by planktivorous fish, nutrient recycling by fish may also contribute to structuring foodwebs in lakes. There is little evidence, however, about whether underyearling fish undergoing several ontogenetic diet shifts may have a comparable bottom-up impact.2. This study examined seasonal patterns of phosphorus (P) concentration and external load, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, and diet shifts in three underyearling fish [perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)] in the shallow, hypertrophic biomanipulated Bautzen reservoir, Germany. Phosphorus metabolism of fish was calculated by a balanced bioenergetics model on the basis of fish diet, growth and water temperature.3. The fish showed several shifts from planktivory to other food sources during the sampling period from May to September. These shifts were probably caused by the seasonal succession of the zooplankton community, mainly the midsummer decline of Daphnia galeata.4. The diet shifts in fish also had consequences for the amount of P consumed and released. During periods of dominant zooplanktivory, the excretion of P did not exceed the removal of P stored in pelagic prey. By contrast, if benthivory dominated, fish subsidized the pelagic P pool by excreting more P from benthic prey than had been removed from the pelagic area. This occurred predominantly in perch and ruffe during periods of low zooplankton biomass, whereas the roach ate more algae and therefore excreted less P of benthic origin.5. Phosphorus release by underyearling fish was estimated at a maximum of 0.1 mg m–3 JY day–1. This value was negligible compared with both the external load of P to Bautzen reservoir and the concentration of P in the pelagic area during summer. It is therefore concluded that both the predominance of underyearling zooplanktivorous fish and the high Daphnia biomass during certain periods of the year in the Bautzen reservoir may be the reason that nutrient release by the fish structured the foodweb only marginally. 6. This study suggests that biomanipulation has altered both top-down and bottom-up impacts of fish in Bautzen reservoir. The highest efficiency of foodweb manipulations may be obtained after reduction of the external P loading below a certain threshold. In turn, if external restoration of eutrophied lakes is not accompanied by changes in fish community, then the combined forces of strong zooplanktivory and high P recycling of dense stocks of zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish may hold the water in a eutrophic-like stage, even if external load has been significantly reduced.
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