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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, is one of the most important bony fishes in Iranian coastal of Caspian Sea. Its harvest range is between 9000-10000 tons in a year, nearly 60% of the income of Bony fish fishery produced by kutum fishery. The stock of this species reduced drastically in 1982 and the catch slumped to the less than 250 tons in a year. Kutum spawning grounds deterioration, illegal catch, and lack of restocking program were the main cause of the decline. This Spices in nature comprised by two distinct form, autumn and spring form. It is worth to be mentioned, by the effect of Caspian Sea Bony fishes Research Center s experts in 1983, artificial spawning and releasing the fries to the sea were commenced and the catch steadily improved. But all activities concerning restocking of kutum concentrated in spring form, as at present about 260 million its fries are released into sea for restocking by Iranian Fisheries Organization, but for above reasons and lack of restocking program, the populations of autumn form gravely shrinked and neared to be extinct. Therefore, to enhance the biodiversity and boost fishers livelihood of kutum in Caspian Sea this project implemented by cooperation of Iranian Fisheries Organization (IFRO) and Caspian Environment Program (CEP) in Aquaculture Institute (Inland Waters). In this project, brooders caught from Anzali lagoon and maintained in two different condition, include of floating cages in Anzali lagoon and earthen ponds in Sefidrud Fisheries Research Station. The results showed that there weren’t significant differences between two maintenance statuses in maturation period and other reproductive characteristics of brooders. The ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4. Minimum and maximum weight measured 1450 to 3100 g (with average of 1850 g) in female and 670 to 1900 g (with average of 1165 g) in male, respectively. The first natural spawning of brooders occurred in the end of January in temperature of 8 till 10 °C in concrete ponds. Also, some of maintained brooders in earthen ponds spawned in February. The average number of absolute, function and relative fecundity determined 88565 16809, 73805 14008 and 48670 12056, respectively. For artificial spawning, male and female brooders injected by pituitary gland with dose of 2-3 and 4-5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Approximately, 10 and 8 present of female were over-ripe and immature in March (artificial spawning time), respectively. More than 59 % of injected female brooders induced to spawning in first stage after 10-12 hours and 13 % of them in twice stage and 7-8 hours after first stage. And also, 27.6% of females didn’t positive response to injection. Dry method used for eggs fecundity and incubation period lasted 7- 10 days in 14-16 °C. In totally, eggs fertilization were more than 95% and the average of eggs fertilization percent in throughout of period measured more than 92.7 6 %. Eyed eggs appearance occurred 3 days after fecundity and its mean was 92.7 15.1%. Larvae after yolk sac absorption feed with dry milk for 4-5 days and then introduced into fertilized earthen ponds (500 m2 and equipped to aerators) in intensive condition and fed with micro pellet food for 3-4 month. In finally, more than 1.8 million fries of 1-2 g and some more than 5 g produced and released into Anzali lagoon to its restocking for first time. It is expected that continuing of restocking process of autumn form kutum by Iranian Fisheries Organization eventuate to population increasing of this form in Caspian Sea in future.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: This study was carried out to determine the appropriate size of Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877) juveniles for releasing to South Caspian Sea or possibility of cage culture in Caspian Sea water. 1611 specimens were exposed in 4 weight groups of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g, in 3 salinity trials: Caspian Water (11- 11.5), inshore water (7) and fresh water (control). Each trial was done in 3 replicates. The blood samples and tissue fixations carried out from juveniles of control group (in fresh water) and 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 168, 240 hours after exposure of fish in different treatments. Plasma osmolal ity, Na^+ and Cl^- concentrations, were measured by osmometer, flame photometer, RA1000 respectively. Plasma cortisol level was determined by using RIA (radio immunochemical assay). Na^+, K^+-ATPase activity in homogenates of gills was estimated by phosphate released from ATP. Histological indicators including chloride cell diameter and nephron morphometric parameters were assessed using classic preparation and optic microscope with digital camera. Results of osmolality and ions measuring concurrently show that all weight groups can live in salinity of 7 and they maintain the osmolality and ion concentrations. In the Caspian water, weight groups excluding 5 g juveniles show same result. Mean plasma osmolality of 20, 15, 10 and 5 gr juveniles in control group (time of 0) were calculated 331.3±8.7, 307.7±6, 334.7±14.6 and 301±8.7 mosml/l. This parameter in the above weight groups after 240 hours exposure in the Caspian Sea water were measured 329±0.53, 321±9, 325.3±6.7 and 346.5±13.6 respectively. The observation of kidney glomeruli in histological sections shows that the diameter of glomeruli in 5, 10, 15 g weight groups in 7 and all groups in Caspian water decreased after 72 h adaptation period (p〈0.05). The cortisol level in 5g juveniles increased (p〈0.05) after 168 hour of the exposure (106±11.3 ng/ml) by comparison with control group (79.5±38 ng/ml). The changes of cortisol level in other groups were not significant. The number of gill chloride cells after 7 days of fish exposure in Caspian Sea and in water of 7 salinity was not changed significantly (p〉0.05) for 5g juveniles, whereas within weight groups of 10, 15 and 20 g in Caspian Sea water and groups of 15, 20 g in water of 7 salinity, the increase (p〈0.05) of chloride cells was observed. The amount of chloride cells on gill secondary lamellas in mentioned trials varied up 3 to 7 (between two lamellas on the histological sections of 5 thickness). The size of chloride cells in 5g juveniles in different salinities has not changed (p〉0.05), although in other groups, a significant increase of this parameter was detected during experiments. Na^+ ,K^+ -ATPase activity in juveniles of 5g weight group in 7 salinity and Caspian water was low (3.2 6.1 mol Pi /mg protein/ h). The enzyme activities in all weight groups were higher under the exposure in Caspian Sea water than that in water of 7 salinity. In group of 10 g juveniles at start time (control in freshwater) the activity of Na^+, K^+ -ATPase was significantly higher (p〈0.05) than that in 20g group. It is may be related to some metabolic changes and transforming to parr-smolt.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: This research was conducted to finding of Cheshmeh-Ali and Shahcheraghi-Dam downstream areas potential for developing of aquaculture industry. The present study was conducted based on available information and data from monthly and seasonally sampling including geographical area, margin lands and fluctuations of river water, seasonal climatic changes view point of rainfall, temperature, wet, evaporation, wind velocity, sunshine hours, frost and also chemical and physical parameters of water including temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, organic phosphorous and nitrogen, suspended solids, turbidity, water flow and flood conditions, and in addition phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, macrobenthic invertebrates, fishes, aquatic plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds. Results showed that the upstream and downstream regions of Shahcheraghi dam are not suitable for warm water aquaculture in earthen ponds. But view point of cold-water aquaculture, particularly trout, there are some good situations. Also it can be suggested different culture systems including of race way, octagonal concrete ponds, semi-circulation and circulation methods. But, due to water restrictions in the area, semi-circulation and circulation system is preferred. In ideal conditions can be produced about 1,600 tones of trout, if all the capacity of this area be used for aquaculture. Otherwise, in limited circumstances view point of exploitation possibility of the water, only about 700 tons can be produced. In addition, there were appropriate facilities in spring area of Cheshmehali for tourism industry, that it can be considered as priorities for economic development in the region. Due to the low sensitivity of the ecologically conditions, native or exotic aquatic species rearing in indoor methods can be recommended.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Using SWOT analysis with traditional matrix and quantitative matrix methods, the strategies to benefit from strengths and opportunities to vanishing weaknesses and decrease of threats for strategic management of aquaculture in Iranian Northern provinces was surveyed. Utilizing researches held in fisheries research centers and existence of aquaculture experts in vicinity, activation of veterinary organization in production and post production, and entering new brood stocks with desirable growth are the main strategies for developing rainbow trout and Chinese carps culture in Iranian Northern provinces. In sturgeon fishes culture, independence of farms from fingerlings produced by governmental complex and diversification the cultured fishes using new species and hybrids can develop this part of aquaculture. Avoiding illegal fishing in sea and rivers, preserving the population of Caspian Sea fishes, entering new fish species which their resources are decreased extremely to breeding and fingerling production cycle, and using pike perch and bream while they migrate to Anzali Lagoon from Caspian Sea, instead of freshwater brood stocks will cause the output of sea enhancement and sea ranching activities to increase, and fisheries return coefficient of these fishes will rise. Using quantitative matrix and scoring method, it was defined that aquaculture in Iranian Northern provinces are extremely approved and acceptable and the score of strengths is more than weaknesses and opportunities more than threats. By using strategic management, these activities can be more developed.
    Keywords: Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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