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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two experiments are performed with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) coupled to a swamp ocean with annually averaged solar forcing. A swamp ocean model is one in which the ocean temperature is computed from a surface energy balance. Both experiments are run with present (1 × CO2) and doubled (2 × CO2) amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The first tests the sensitivity of the model to a snow and sea-ice-albedo formulation which facilitates relatively greater ice melt. The second assesses the model response when the basic state of the model in the control run is colder due to a 2% decrease in solar constant. Both are compared to a previous experiment with the same model using a different snow and sea-ice-albedo formulation and the present value of the solar constant. It is found that the globally averaged surface air temperature increase due to a doubling of CO2 is highly dependent on (1) the type of snow-sea-ice-albedo formulation used such that the parameterization which better facilitates relatively greater ice melt exhibits a greater sensitivity to increased CO2, and (2) the basic state of the control run such that the colder the basic state, the greater the warming due to increased CO2.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climatic change 6 (1984), S. 259-286 
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Mathematical models of the earth's climate provide intriguing opportunities to study a wide range of interdisciplinary problems involving processes within the climate system in a controlled and systematic manner. This paper is intended as a nontechnical review of climate modeling to enable researchers who are unfamiliar with the topic to better evaluate and judge the credibility of the model results. The types of climate models available for climate research are reviewed here, and four broad categories of climate models are identified. These range from the more simple energy balance models (EBMs) and radiative-convective models (RCMs), to the more complex statistical-dynamical models (SDMs), to the most powerful tools yet available for studying climate, the general circulation models (GCMs). This last category includes gridpoint and spectral GCMs. Four representations of the oceans which can be coupled to GCMs are described and include prescribed sea surface temperatures, an energy balance or ‘swamp’ ocean, a mixed layer or ‘slab’ ocean, or a fully computed ocean general circulation model. Selected examples considered representative of the types of studies possible with the various classes of models are given. Taken together, the spectrum of climate models provides a hierarchy of learning and research tools with which to effectively study the extremes of past climates, the vagaries of present-day climate, and possible climatic fluctuations well into the future.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The snow-sea-ice albedo parameterization in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM), coupled to a simple mixed-layer ocean and run with an annual cycle of solar forcing, is altered from a version of the same model described by Washington and Meehl (1984). The model with the revised formulation is run to equilibrium for 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 experiments. The 1 ×CO2 (control) simulation produces a global mean climate about 1° warmer than the original version, and sea-ice extent is reduced. The model with the altered parameterization displays heightened sensitivity in the global means, but the geographical patterns of climate change due to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) are qualitatively similar. The magnitude of the climate change is affected, not only in areas directly influenced by snow and ice changes but also in other regions of the globe, including the tropics where sea-surface temperature, evaporation, and precipitation over the oceans are greater. With the less-sensitive formulation, the global mean surface air temperature increase is 3.5 °C, and the increase of global mean precipitation is 7.12%. The revised formulation produces a globally averaged surface air temperature increase of 4.04 °C and a precipitation increase of 7.25%, as well as greater warming of the upper tropical troposphere. Sensitivity of surface hydrology is qualitatively similar between the two cases with the larger-magnitude changes in the revised snow and ice-albedo scheme experiment. Variability of surface air temperature in the model is comparable to observations in most areas except at high latitudes during winter. In those regions, temporal variation of the sea-ice margin and fluctuations of snow cover dependent on the snow-ice-albedo formulation contribute to larger-than-observed temperature variability. This study highlights an uncertainty associated with results from current climate GCMs that use highly parameterized snow-sea-ice albedo schemes with simple mixed-layer ocean models.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We estimate the feedback of sea-ice change to the warming from CO2-doubling according to the simulation of Washington and Meehl (1984). Without ice-snow albedo feedback, their global warming of 3.5 °C would have been 2.2. °C according to our estimate of the ice-snow feedback. About 80% of the albedo change from ice and snow occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. Whether this change was an overestimate will require further study.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-378X
    Keywords: Global climate model Indian monsoon Intraseasonal variability GHG forcings Regional climate change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract. The broad climatological features associated with the Asian monsoon circulation, including its mean state and intraseasonal and interannual variability over the Indian subcontinent as simulated in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) global coupled climate system model (CSM) in its control reference experiment, are presented in this paper. The CSM reproduces the seasonal cycle as well as basic observed patterns of key climatic parameters reasonably well in spite of some limitations in simulation of the monsoon rainfall. However, while the seasonality in rainfall over the region is simulated well, the simulated area-averaged monsoon rainfall is underestimated to only about 60% of the observed rainfall. The centers of maxima in simulated monsoon rainfall are slightly displaced southward as compared to the climatological patterns. The cross-equatorial flow in simulated surface wind patterns during summer is also stronger than observed with an easterly bias. The transient experiment with a 1% per year compound increase in CO2 with CSM suggests an annual mean area-averaged surface warming of about 1.73 °C over the region at the time of CO2 doubling. This warming is more pronounced in winter than during the monsoon season. A net increase in area-averaged monsoon rainfall of about 1.4 mm day–1, largely due to increased moisture convergence and associated convective activity over the land, is obtained. The enhanced intraseasonal variability in the monsoon rainfall in a warmer atmosphere is confined to the early part of the monsoon season which suggests the possibility of the date of onset of summer monsoon over India becoming more variable in future. The enhanced interannual and intraseasonal variability in the summer monsoon activity over India could also contribute to more intense rainfall spells over the land regions of the Indian subcontinent, thus increasing the probability of extreme rainfall events in a warmer atmosphere.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Components of interannual, intermonthly, and total monthly variability of lower troposphere temperature are calculated from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (GCM) (referred to as the coupled model), from the same atmospheric model coupled to a nondynamic mixed-layer ocean (referred to as the mixed-layer model), and from microwave sounding unit (MSU) satellite data. The coupled model produces most features of intermonthly and interannual variability compared to the MSU data, but with somewhat reduced amplitude in the extratropics and increased variability in the tropical western Pacific and tropical Atlantic. The relatively short 14-year period of record of the MSU data precludes definitive conclusions about variability in the observed system at longer time scales (e.g., decadal or longer). Different 14-year periods from the coupled model show variability on those longer time scales that were noted in Part 1 of this series. The relative contributions of intermonthly and interannual variability that make up the total monthly variability are similar between the coupled model and the MSU data, suggesting that similar mechanisms are at work in both the model and observed system. These include El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-type interannual variability in the tropics, Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)-type intermonthly variability in the tropics, and blocking-type intermonthly variability in the extratropics. Manifestations of all of these features have been noted in various versions of the model. Significant changes of variability noted in the coupled model with doubled carbon dioxide differ from those in our mixed-layer model and earlier studies with mixed-layer models. In particular, in our mixed-layer model intermonthly and interannual variability changes are similar with a mixture of regional increases and decreases, but with mainly decreases in the zonal mean from about 20° S to 60° N and near 60° S. In the coupled model, intermonthly and interannual changes of variability with doubled CO2 show mostly increases of tropical interannual variability and decreases of intermonthly variability near 60° N. These changes in the tropics are related to changes in ENSO, the south Asian monsoon, and other regional hydrological regimes, while the alterations near 60° N are likely associated with changes in blocking activity. These results point to the important contribution from ENSO seen in the coupled model and the MSU data that are not present in the mixed-layer model.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Two competing cloud-radiative feedbacks identified in previous studies i.e., cloud albedo feedback and the super greenhouse effect, are examined in a sensitivity study with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Cloud albedo feedback is strengthened in a sensitivity experiment by lowering the sea-surface temperature (SST) threshold in the specified cloud albedo feedback scheme. This simple parameterization requires coincident warm SSTs and deep convection for upper-level cloud albedos to increase. The enhanced cloud albedo feedback in the sensitivity experiment results in decreased maximum values of SST and cooler surface temperatures over most areas of the planet. There is also a cooling of the tropical troposphere with attendant global changes of atmospheric circulation reminiscent of those observed during La Niña or cold events in the Southern Oscillation. The strengthening of the cloud albedo feedback only occurs over warm tropical oceans (e.g., the western Pacific warm pool), where there is increased albedo, decreased absorbed solar radiation at the surface, stronger surface westerlies, enhanced westward currents, lower temperatures, and decreased precipitation and evaporation. However, the weakened convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean alters the large-scale circulation in the tropics such that there is increased upper-level divergence over tropical land areas and the tropical Indian Ocean. This results in increased precipitation in those regions and intensified monsoonal regimes. The enhanced precipitation over tropical land areas produces increased clouds and albedo and wetter and cooler land surfaces. These additional contributions to decreased absorbed solar input at the surface combine with similar changes over the tropical oceans to produce the global cooling associated with the stronger cloud albedo feedback. Increased low-level moisture convergence and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean enhance slightly the super greenhouse effect there. But the stronger cloud albedo feedback is still the dominant effect, although cooling of SSTs in that region is less than in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The sensitivity experiment demonstrates how a regional change of radiative forcing is quickly transmitted globally through a combination of radiative and dynamical processes in the coupled model. This study points to the uncertainties involved with the parameterization of cloud albedo and the major implications of such parameterizations concerning the maximum values of SST, global climate sensitivity, and climate change.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two competing cloud-radiative feedbacks identified in previous studies i.e., cloud albedo feedback and the super greenhouse effect, are examined in a sensitivity study with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Cloud albedo feedback is strengthened in a sensitivity experiment by lowering the sea-surface temperature (SST) threshold in the specified cloud albedo feedback scheme. This simple parameterization requires coincident warm SSTs and deep convection for upper-level cloud albedos to increase. The enhanced cloud albedo feedback in the sensitivity experiment results in decreased maximum values of SST and cooler surface temperatures over most areas of the planet. There is also a cooling of the tropical troposphere with attendant global changes of atmospheric circulation reminiscent of those observed during La Niña or cold events in the Southern Oscillation. The strengthening of the cloud albedo feedback only occurs over warm tropical oceans (e.g., the western Pacific warm pool), where there is increased albedo, decreased absorbed solar radiation at the surface, stronger surface westerlies, enhanced westward currents, lower temperatures, and decreased precipitation and evaporation. However, the weakened convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean alters the large-scale circulation in the tropics such that there is increased upper-level divergence over tropical land areas and the tropical Indian Ocean. This results in increased precipitation in those regions and intensified monsoonal regimes. The enhanced precipitation over tropical land areas produces increased clouds and albedo and wetter and cooler land surfaces. These additional contributions to decreased absorbed solar input at the surface combine with similar changes over the tropical oceans to produce the global cooling associated with the stronger cloud albedo feedback. Increased low-level moisture convergence and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean enhance slightly the super greenhouse effect there. But the stronger cloud albedo feedback is still the dominant effect, although cooling of SSTs in that region is less than in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The sensitivity experiment demonstrates how a regional change of radiative forcing is quickly transmitted globally through a combination of radiative and dynamical processes in the coupled model. This study points to the uncertainties involved with the parameterization of cloud albedo and the major implications of such parameterizations concerning the maximum values of SST, global climate sensitivity, and climate change.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We have developed an improved version of a world ocean model with the intention of coupling to an atmospheric model. This article documents the simulation capability of this 1° global ocean model, shows improvements over our earlier 5° version, and compares it to features simulated with a 0.5° model. These experiments use a model spin-up methodology whereby the ocean model can subsequently be coupled to an atmospheric model and used for order 100-year coupled model integrations. With present-day computers, 1° is a reasonable compromise in resolution that allows for century-long coupled experiments. The 1° ocean model is derived from a 0.5°-resolution model developed by A. Semtner (Naval Postgraduate School) and R. Chervin (National Center for Atmospheric Research) for studies of the global eddy-resolving world ocean circulation. The 0.5° bottom topography and continental outlines have been altered to be compatible with the 1° resolution, and the Arctic Ocean has been added. We describe the ocean simulation characteristics of the 1° version and compare the result of weakly constraining (three-year time scale) the three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields to the observations below the thermocline (710 m) with the model forced only at the top of the ocean by observed annual mean wind stress, temperature, and salinity. The 1° simulations indicate that major ocean circulation patterns are greatly improved compared to the 5° version and are qualitatively reproduced in comparison to the 0.5° version. Using the annual mean top forcing alone in a 100-year simulation with the 1° version preserves the general features of the major observed temperature and salinity structure with most climate drift occurring mainly beneath the thermocline in the first 50–75 years. Because the thermohaline circulation in the 1° version is relatively weak with annual mean forcing, we demonstrate the importance of the seasonal cycle by performing two sensitivity experiments. Results show a dramatic intensification of the meridional overturning circulation (order of magnitude) with perpetual winter surface temperature forcing in the North Atlantic and strong intensification (factor of three) with perpetual early winter temperatures in that region. These effects are felt throughout the Atlantic (particularly an intensified and northward-shifted Gulf Stream outflow). In the Pacific, the temperature gradient strengthens in the thermocline, thus helping counter the systematic error of a thermocline that is too diffuse.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Results from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (GCM) are used to perform the first in a series of studies of the various time and space scales of climate anomalies in an environment of gradually increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) (a linear transient increase of 1% per year in the coupled model). Since observed climate anomaly patterns often are computed as time-averaged differences between two periods, climate-change signals in the coupled model are defined using differences of various averaging intervals between the transient and control integrations. Annual mean surface air temperature differences for several regions show that the Northern Hemisphere warms faster than the Southern Hemisphere and that land areas warm faster than ocean. The high northern latitudes outside the North Atlantic contribute most to global warming but also exhibit great variability, while the high southern latitudes contribute the least. The equatorial tropics warm more slowly than the subtropics due to strong upwelling and mixing in the ocean. The globally averaged surface air temperature trend computed from annual mean differences for years 23–60 is 0.03
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