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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 90 (2013): 15-30, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.02.029.
    Description: The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (~2km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 year) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.
    Description: This project is supported by NOAA grant NA09OAR4310062. MZ and MJ 11 are also supported by NSF grant 0948378 and MAC by NSF grant 0948442.
    Keywords: Model ; Circulation ; Antarctic Peninsula ; Antarctic Circumpolar Current ; Elephant Island ; Off-shelf transport ; Fe ; Drake Passage ; Southern Scotia Sea
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-02-15
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 374 (2016): 20160035, doi:10.1098/rsta.2016.0035.
    Description: Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.
    Description: his paper represents the outcomes from a series of break-out group discussions held at Chicheley Hall, UK, on 9 and 10 December 2015, as part of a Quantifying Fluxes and Processes in Trace-Metal Cycling in the Oceans science meeting sponsored by the Royal Society. C.R.G. also acknowledges further support from NSF grant OCE-1130870.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography 57 (2012): 989-1010, doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.4.0989.
    Description: We present full-depth zonal sections of total dissolved cobalt, iron, manganese, and labile cobalt from the South Atlantic Ocean. A basin-scale plume from the African coast appeared to be a major source of dissolved metals to this region, with high cobalt concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone of the Angola Dome and extending 2500 km into the subtropical gyre. Metal concentrations were elevated along the coastal shelf, likely due to reductive dissolution and resuspension of particulate matter. Linear relationships between cobalt, N2O, and O2, as well as low surface aluminum supported a coastal rather than atmospheric cobalt source. Lateral advection coupled with upwelling, biological uptake, and remineralization delivered these metals to the basin, as evident in two zonal transects with distinct physical processes that exhibited different metal distributions. Scavenging rates within the coastal plume differed for the three metals; iron was removed fastest, manganese removal was 2.5 times slower, and cobalt scavenging could not be discerned from water mass mixing. Because scavenging, biological utilization, and export constantly deplete the oceanic inventories of these three hybrid-type metals, point sources of the scale observed here likely serve as vital drivers of their oceanic cycles. Manganese concentrations were elevated in surface waters across the basin, likely due to coupled redox processes acting to concentrate the dissolved species there. These observations of basin-scale hybrid metal plumes combined with the recent projections of expanding oxygen minimum zones suggest a potential mechanism for effects on ocean primary production and nitrogen fixation via increases in trace metal source inputs.
    Description: This research was supported US National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography (Division of Ocean Sciences OCE-0452883, OCE-0752291, OCE-0928414, OCE-1031271), the Center for Microbial Research and Education, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, and the WHOI Ocean Life Institute.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 90 (2013): 4-14, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.03.041.
    Description: An austral winter cruise in July-August 2006 was conducted to study the winter circulation and iron delivery processes in the Southern Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait. Results from current and hydrographic measurements revealed a circulation pattern similar to that of the austral summer season observed in previous studies: The Shackleton Transverse Ridge (STR) in the southern Drake Passage blocks a part of the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which forces the ACC to detour southward, produces a Taylor Column over the STR, and forms an ACC jet within the Shackleton Gap, a deep channel between the STR and the shelf of Elephant Island. Observations show that to the west of the STR, the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) intruded onto the shelf around the South Shetland Islands while to the east of the STR, shelf waters were transported off the northern shelf of Elephant Island. Along a similar west-east transect approximately 50 km off the shelf, the northward transport of shelf waters was approximately 2.4 and 1.2 Sv in the austral winter and summer, respectively. The waters around Elephant Island primarily consist of the UCDW that has been modified by local cooling and freshening, unmodified UCDW that has recently intruded onto the shelf, and Bransfield Current water that is a mixture of shelf and Bransfield Strait waters. Weddell Sea outflows were observed which affect the hydrography and circulation in the Bransfield Strait and indirectly affect the circulation patterns in the southern Drake Passage and around Elephant Island. Two Fe enrichment and transport mechanisms are proposed that intrusions of the UCDW onto the northern shelf region of the South Shetland Islands is considered as the results of Ekman pumping due to prevailing westerly wind in the region while the offshelf transport of shelf waters in the shelf region east of Elephant Island is due to acquisition of positive vorticity by shelf waters from horizontal mixing with onshelf intruded ACC waters.
    Description: This project was supported by the National Science Foundation grant numbers OPP-0229966, ANT-0444040 and ANT-0948378 to M. Zhou, OPP0230445, ANT0443403 and ANT-0948357 to C. Measures, ANT0443869 and ANT-0948442 to M. Charette, and OPP0230443, ANT0444134 and ANT0948338 to B.G. Mitchell.
    Keywords: Southern Ocean ; Drake Passage ; Antarctic Circumpolar Current ; Shelf waters ; Mesoscale eddies ; Mixing ; Iron transport
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 87 (2010): 103-112, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.12.017.
    Description: The use of dissolved Al as a tracer for oceanic water masses and atmospheric dust deposition of biologically important elements, such as iron, requires the quantitative assessment of its sources and sinks in seawater. Here, we address the relative importance of oceanic versus atmospheric inputs of Al, and the relationship with nutrient cycling, in a region of high biological productivity in coastal Antarctica. We investigate the concentrations of dissolved Al in seawater, sea ice, meteoric water and sediments collected from northern Marguerite Bay, off the West Antarctic Peninsula, from 2005-2006. Dissolved Al concentrations at 15 m water depth varied between 2 and 27 nM, showing a peak between two phytoplankton blooms. We find that, in this coastal setting, upwelling and incorporation of waters from below the surface mixed layer are responsible for this peak in dissolved Al as well as renewal of nutrients. This means that changes in the intensity and frequency of upwelling events may result in changes in biological production and carbon uptake. The waters below the mixed layer are most likely enriched in Al as a result of sea ice formation, either causing the injection of Al-rich brines or the resuspension of sediments and entrainment of pore fluids by brine cascades. Glacial, snow and sea ice melt contributes secondarily to the supply of Al to surface waters. Total particulate Al ranges from 93 to 2057 μg/g, and increases with meteoric water input towards the end of the summer, indicating glacial runoff is an important source of particulate Al. The (Al/Si)opal of sediment core top material is considerably higher than water column opal collected by sediment traps, indicative of a diagenetic overprint and incorporation of Al at the sediment-water interface. Opal that remains buried in the sediment could represent a significant sink of Al from seawater.
    Description: This project is part of AFI4‐02 and KRH was funded by NERC grant NER/S/A/2004/12390.
    Keywords: Biogeochemistry ; Nutrients (mineral) ; Trace metals ; Brines ; Antarctica
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 116 (2015): 176-186, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.07.006.
    Description: The distribution of dissolved aluminium determined during GA03, the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transects (US GT NAZT) shows large inputs to the basin from three main sources, atmospheric deposition, outflow from the Mediterranean, and inputs from hydrothermal sources along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The partial dissolution of atmospheric aerosols emanating from the Sahara yield high concentrations of dissolved Al in the surface waters of the basin and are used to estimate the geographical pattern of dust deposition. The Mediterranean outflow delivers a large source of dissolved Al to the intermediate waters of the eastern basin and its subsequent distribution within the basin can be explained by simple isopycnal mixing with surrounding water masses. Hydrothermal venting at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) hydrothermal field in the MAR produces a neutrally buoyant plume that introduces copious quantities of dissolved Al (with concentrations of up to 40nM) to the deeper waters of the North Atlantic that can be seen advecting to the west of the MAR. The concentration of dissolved Al in the deep waters of the eastern basin of the Atlantic can be accounted for by admixing the MAR Al enriched plume water and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) as they pass through the Vema Fracture Zone. The data sets show no evidence for biological remineralisation of dissolved Al from Si carrier phases in deep waters.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF OCE-0928741 and OCE-1137812 to CIM.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 177 (2015): 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The IDP2014 covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The TEI data in the IDP2014 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the IDP2014 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2014 data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, and OCE-1243377. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0003-2670
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4324
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
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