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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: G. H. Darwin proposed that the primordial Earth may have rotated fast enough that the solar tidal period was nearly resonant with the fundamental free oscillation period of a fluid Earth and that a large and unstable tidal oscillation split off to become the moon. Jeffreys argumented that dissipation during resonance would be sufficient to prevent such an unstable oscillation greater than the tidal frequency (period - 2.68 hr). It is considered that solar tides have extracted angular momentum from the Earth-Moon system over 4.5 b.y. The correspondence of the primordial tidal and resonant frequencies is nearly exact. (The effect of central condensation of the proto earth is to increase both frequencies by a similar amount, though the resonance is not precisely known. This result, was unknown to Darwin or Jeffreys. The effects of resonance were evaluated. The resonance is likely to be too damped for fission. This argument is more general than Jeffreys', who considered friction between the oscillating mantle and a rigid core. It is argued that the fact that Q must be so great for fission that equilibrium can not be maintained; the fluid proto Earth passes so quickly through resonance that maximum amplitude is not reached. It is suggested that solar resonant tides acted as a brake on the spin of the primordial partially molten Earth. Certain proposed origins for the Moon do not necessarily involve addition of substantial amounts of angular momentum to the Earth-Moon system. The primordial Earth-Moon system may have had nearly the same angular momentum as it has today.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 34
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Voyager-Galileo stereo images of Ganymede reveal that smooth bright terrains are depressed at least 700 m compared to older terrains, and that less deformed terrains are more depressed. These observations are consistent with flooding of bright terrain by low-viscosity lavas.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-09
    Description: Accurate, three layered structural models were generated for Ganymede and Callisto. Three layered satellites consist of a rock core, a region of mixed rock and ice, and an outer shell of pure ice. This structure would result from either accretional melting of the outermost region of the satellite or differentiation subsequent to localized melting. A completely undifferentiated ice rock satellite possesses only the single, top boundary layer and, in this case, melting is also relatively difficult to initiate; this suggests that, if accretional melting results in a small degree of differentiation initially, subsequent melting may readily occur as the satellite warms due to radiogenic heating. Alternatively, if accretion is not accompanied by a small degree of differentiation, it may prove too difficult to initiate nonaccretional melting and the satellite might remain undifferentiated indefinitely.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington Repts. of Planetary Geol. and Geophys. Program, 1984; p 519-521
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2014-09-30
    Description: Lyttleton's (1936) hypothesis that Triton and Pluto originated as adjacent prograde satellites of Neptune is evaluated, and it is shown that with the presently accepted masses of Triton and Pluto-Charon, the momentum and energy exchange required to sell Triton on a retrograde orbit is impossible. The Pluto-Charon system could not have acquired its present angular momentum state during an ejection event unless a physical collision was involved, which is quite unlikely. The simplest hypothesis is that Triton and Pluto are independent representatives of large outer solar system planetesimals. Triton is simply captured, with spectacular consequences that include runaway melting of interior ices and release to the surface of clathrated CH4, CO, and N2. Condensed remnants of this protoatmosphere could account for features in Triton's unique spectrum.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington Repts. of Planetary Geol. and Geophys. Program, 1984; p 64-66
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: With the approach of Cassini to the Saturn system, attention naturally focuses on the planet, its rings and Titan, but the Saturn system is also populated by a number of smaller satellites. The seven middle-sized icy satellites, along with those of Uranus, (between 400 and 1500 km wide) are distinctly different geophysically and geologically from their much larger Galilean-class brethren [e.g., 1]. Topographic mapping of these bodies is a critical part of understanding their geologic evolution. Here we describe our recent efforts to map the topography of these satellites using Voyager data.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The geology of the major icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed in terms of the four major processes that shape icy satellite surfaces: impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and interactions with planetary magnetospheres and solar radiation. The role of these processes in creating the differences that exist among the satellites, in particular the orderly progression of geological properties in the Jovian satellites, is emphasized. Important questions left open after the Voyager missions are summarized.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: On the basis of a morphological analysis of recent Voyager images of the dark halo craters and grooved terrain in the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede, it is proposed that dark halos result from the incorporation of cratered terrain material into crater ejecta. In Uruk Sulcus, only craters greater than about 12 km in diameter have halos, indicating that the cratered material there forms a stratigraphic horizon buried in the grooved terrain. A depth of excavation of cratered terrains of 1.0 to 1.6 km is calculated. It is shown that the estimated depth is consistent with current theoretical models of grooved terrain, where relatively clean ice is emplaced over downdropped blocks of cratered terrain. Several Voyager 2 images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede are provided.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research, Supplement (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; C775-C78
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Lyttleton's (1936) hypothesis that Triton and Pluto originated as adjacent prograde satellites of Neptune is evaluated, and it is shown that with the presently accepted masses of Triton and Pluto-Charon, the momentum and energy exchange required to set Triton on a retrograde orbit is impossible. The Pluto-Charon system could not have acquired its present angular momentum state during an ejection event unless a physical collision was involved, which is quite unlikely. The simplest hypothesis is that Triton and Pluto are independent representatives of large outer solar system planetesimals. Triton is simply captured, with spectacular consequences that include runaway melting of interior ices and release to the surface of clathrated CH4, CO, and N2. Condensed remnants of this protoatmosphere could account for features in Triton's unique spectrum.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 311; 355-358
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Approximately 950 impact craters have been identified on the surface of Venus, mainly in Magellan radar images. From a combination of Earth-based Arecibo, Venera 15/1, and Magellan radar images, we have interpreted 72 as unequivocal peak-ring craters and four as multiringed basins. The morphological and structural preservation of these craters is high owing to the low level of geologic activity on the venusian surface (which is in some ways similar to the terrestrial benthic environment). Thus these craters should prove crucial to understanding the mechanics of ringed crater formation. They are also the most direct analogs for craters formed on the Earth in Phanerozoic time, such as Chicxulub. We summarize our findings to date concerning these structures.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Houston Univ., New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History; p 81-82
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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